Test Methods and Descriptions

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AAR 942 - Roll Stability 96 hrs. @ 180° F

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.1 - Materials and Consistency in Brake Cylinder Lubricants

AAR M-914 paragraphs 2.1 and 2.2 - Materials and Consistency (American Association of Railroads Specification M-914 Brake Cylinder Lubricant Materials)

Brake cylinder lubricants need to provide lubrication whenever the brakes are applied.  This requires a lubricant that stays in place when the brakes are moving or at rest.  This test evaluates both the appearance and consistency of the grease.  The appearance is visually evaluated for homogeneity and impurities while the consistency is evaluated by determining the penetration value.   

The grease is stirred and visually examined for abrasive materials or impurities.  It is then worked as described in ASTM D217 and the penetration value is determined.   Reported is the penetration value and a pass or fail appearance rating.

 

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.3.1 - Apparent Viscosity ASTM D1092 @ -40°F

AAR M-914 paragraph 2.3.1 – Apparent Viscosity at -40°F (American Association of Railroads Specification M-914 Brake Cylinder Lubricant Apparent Viscosity)

To safely slow down or stop a moving vehicle, brake cylinder components should move freely, rapidly and smoothly, regardless of the ambient temperature. In cold climates, this may require a brake cylinder grease that will flow properly at -40°F.   This test determines the apparent viscosity of lubricating grease at -40°F.

For the procedure, please refer to ASTM D1092.  Reported is the apparent viscosity at -40°F in poise at 20 sec-1 and 100 sec-1.

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.3.2 - Freezing Point

AAR M-914 paragraph 2.3.2 – Freezing Point (American Association of Railroads Specification M-914 Brake Cylinder Lubricant Freezing Point)

In order for brakes to function, the brake cylinder lubricant must flow properly under all climatic conditions. This requires that the lubricant remains soft enough to do its job at low temperatures, such as those seen in northern latitudes.  This test determines if a grease will freeze at -40°F.

The grease is placed in the test container and cooled to the test temperature (-40°F) .  A bronze rod, also cooled to the test temperature, is inserted into the grease.  If the rod moves freely, the grease is considered “not frozen” at the test temperature.

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.3.3 - Spreadability

AAR M-914 paragraph 2.3.3 - Spreadability (American Association of Railroads Specification M-914 Brake Cylinder Lubricant Spreadability)

Vehicles operated in arctic regions need brake lubricants that can be applied and adhere at very cold temperatures.  This test determines the spreadability of lubricants at -40°F.

The test grease and a cast iron panel are cooled to the test temperature (-40°F).  The grease is applied to the cast iron panel.  If the grease spreads smoothly and uniformly, and adheres to the cast iron panel, it is reported as a “pass”. 

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.4.1 - Oil Separation

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.6 - Oil Swell of Brake Cylinder Elastomers

AAR M-914 paragraph 2.6 - Oil Swell (American Association of Railroads Specification M-914 Brake Cylinder Lubricant Oil Swell)

During routine operation, elastomer components of braking systems may be exposed to lubricants.  If the lubricants are incompatible with the elastomer, the elastomer may swell.  This test is intended to ensure that the lubricant does not change the properties of packing cup elastomers. 

Elastomer strips of the same material as the brake cylinder packing cups are weighed to determine the original volume. The strips are separated into two groups, one group is placed in the brake cylinder lubricant and the second group is placed in a standard ASTM Referee oil.  Both sets are exposed for the required test time and temperature (158°F, 168 hours).  At the end of the test, the strips are removed, cleaned and again weighed to determine the change in volume.  The volume increase of the test lubricant elastomer vs. the volume increase of the ASTM Referee oil elastomer is reported.  The test lubricant should have swelled no more than the ASTM Referee oil to pass.

AAR M-914 ¶ 2.7.1 - Water Stability of Brake Cylinder Lubriants

AAR M-914 paragraph 2.7.1 – Water Stability (American Association of Railroads Specification M-914 Brake Cylinder Lubricant Water Stability)

During normal operation brake cylinder lubricants may be exposed to environmental water.  If the water causes a significant change to the grease consistency, the system may no longer be properly lubricated.  This test determines changes in grease consistency (penetration values) when the lubricant is exposed to and mixed with water.

The prolonged worked penetration of the original test grease (ASTM D217) is determined.  A second sample of the test grease is combined with water and the prolonged worked penetration of the mixture is determined.  If the penetration value of the mixture vs the original grease is within the limits of the specification requirements, a “pass” is reported. 

           

 

AJ 106-2 - Molybdenum Disulfide - Ford Method

AN-G-3A - Bleed & Evaporation, 50 hrs. @ 212°F

APHA4500* - Sulfides

API RP 5A3-C - Penetration, Worked after Cooling, Annex C

API RP 5A3-D - Evaporation Test , Annex D

API RP 5A3-D Recommended Practice on Thread Compounds for Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe – Evaporation Test

Thread compounds seal joints in pipelines and drill stems. Casings and pipes may be exposed to high temperatures, both such in tropical areas and when transporting products in heated states,  causing evaporation of the thread compound components. Storage may also allow some volatiles to evaporate away which causes the compound to shrink and potentially result in a loose or under sealed pipe joint. This test determines the percent volume change in thread compounds that results from components evaporating at elevated temperatures. 

The density of the thread compound is determined.  A weighed sample is then placed in an evaporation dish and brought to the test temperature for the test time (100°C, 24 hours).  It is then cooled in a desiccator and weighed again.  The percent volume loss is calculated and reported.

         

API RP 5A3-E - Oil Separation Nickel Cone, Annex E

API-RP 5A3-E Recommended Practice on Thread Compounds for Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe – Oil Separation Test

Thread compounds seal pipe joints in drill stems and underground pipelines.  If the oil and the thickener separate during storage it may compromise the compound’s effectiveness.  This test determines the volume fraction of oil that separates from the thickener in thread compounds during storage. 

The density of the thread compound is determined.  A nickel filter cone is filled with the sample, placed in a beaker and the assembly is heated to the test temperature for the test time.  The mass of oil that separates from the grease is determined.  The percent volume loss of oil from the thread compound is reported.

Note:  This test substitutes a nickel cone with 1.0 mm holes for the wire screen used in ASTM D6184 and FTM-321.

           

 

API RP 5A3-F - Application/Adherence, Annex F

API RP 5A3-F Recommended Practice on Thread Compounds for Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe – Application/Adherence Test

Thread compounds seal joints where pipes meet, such as in pipelines, casings, tubing and drill stems.  Because many of these applications are on or under the ground for many years, the thread compound needs to give proper coverage on application and adhere to the threads for the lifetime of the piping.  Additionally, outdoor assembly of these pipe structures occurs in all kinds of weather, including environments both on land and at sea. This test determines the application and adherence properties of thread compounds when applied at low temperatures often seen in northern latitudes and at high temperatures seen in tropical areas.

To test cold temperature application and adherence: the thread compound, application brush and pipe are brought to the cold test temperature (-7°C) and given time to stabilize.  The thread compound is brushed on to the pipe and the brush-ability is observed.  Reported are observations of layer uniformity, adhesion, and the formation of agglomerations or voids. 

To test elevated temperature application and adherence:  a weighed amount of thread compound is applied to pipe threads to provide a uniform thickness.  The pipe is maintained at the test temperature (66°C) for the test time (12 to 17 hours), allowed to cool to room temperature and reweighed.  Reported is the mass loss of thread compound at the elevated temperature and observations of uniformity, adhesion, and the formation of voids or agglomerations.

 

API RP 5A3-G - Gas Evolution, Annex G

API RP 5A3-G Recommended Practice on Thread Compounds for Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe –  Gas Evolution Test

Thread compounds often contain thickeners including graphite and metals (lead, zinc, copper).  If these components are reactive with one another or with other grease components, the grease may not be stable enough for long term underground use.  This test measures gases produced when the thread compounds are heated for a specified time.  The amount of gas produced is an indication of the long term stability of the thread compound.

The thread compound is placed in the test vessel and brought to the test temperature (66ºC).  The amount of gas produced is periodically measured.  The volume of evolved gas is reported in cubic centimeters. 

 

API RP 5A3-H - Water Leaching, Annex H

API RP 5A3-H –Recommended Practice on Thread Compounds for Casing, Tubing and Line Pipe – Water Leaching Test

Oil, gas and other liquids are transported long distances above ground, underground, and under or across waterways using pipelines with segments connected by threaded joints.  The thread compounds that seal these joints need to prevent water from seeping into the pipeline and prevent oil or gas from seeping out.  This test determines the mass of components that will leach out of a thread compound in the presence of slow moving water. 

The sample grease is placed in a perforated metal cone.  Water is then dripped over the cone at the rate and temperature specified in the method .  At the conclusion of the test time, the grease is dried and the mass loss is determined and reported as a percent water leaching.

 

 

ASTM B117 - Salt Spray Corrosion Test @ 48 hours (aka FTM-4001)

ASTM B117 Salt Spray (Fog) Corrosion

Metals used in or around the ocean, such as on cargo or Navy ships, are exposed to the spray or fog of salt water. Both water and salt (sodium chloride) catalyze the formation of rust, so rust in nautical atmospheres is a serious problem.  This test is intended to predict how well an oil will protect metals from rust.

Steel panels are sand blasted, dipped in test oil, allowed to drain and placed in a salt fog chamber for the specified test time.  Panels are evaluated daily for the development of rust.  The number and size of rust spots is reported. If the rusted area is large, the percent of the panel rusted is reported.  This test can be run for a specified period of time or until failure.

ASTM B117 - Salt Spray Corrosion Test @ 100 hours

ASTM B117 Salt Spray (Fog) Corrosion

Metals used in or around the ocean, such as on cargo or Navy ships, are exposed to the spray or fog of salt water. Both water and salt (sodium chloride) catalyze the formation of rust, so rust in nautical atmospheres is a serious problem.  This test is intended to predict how well an oil will protect metals from rust.

Steel panels are sand blasted, dipped in test oil, allowed to drain and placed in a salt fog chamber for the specified test time.  Panels are evaluated daily for the development of rust.  The number and size of rust spots is reported. If the rusted area is large, the percent of the panel rusted is reported.  This test can be run for a specified period of time or until failure.

ASTM B117 - Salt Spray Corrosion Test @ 300 hours

ASTM B117 Salt Spray (Fog) Corrosion

Metals used in or around the ocean, such as on cargo or Navy ships, are exposed to the spray or fog of salt water. Both water and salt (sodium chloride) catalyze the formation of rust, so rust in nautical atmospheres is a serious problem.  This test is intended to predict how well an oil will protect metals from rust.

Steel panels are sand blasted, dipped in test oil, allowed to drain and placed in a salt fog chamber for the specified test time.  Panels are evaluated daily for the development of rust.  The number and size of rust spots is reported. If the rusted area is large, the percent of the panel rusted is reported.  This test can be run for a specified period of time or until failure.

ASTM B117 - Salt Spray Corrosion Test @ 500 hours

ASTM B117 Salt Spray (Fog) Corrosion

Metals used in or around the ocean, such as on cargo or Navy ships, are exposed to the spray or fog of salt water. Both water and salt (sodium chloride) catalyze the formation of rust, so rust in nautical atmospheres is a serious problem.  This test is intended to predict how well an oil will protect metals from rust.

Steel panels are sand blasted, dipped in test oil, allowed to drain and placed in a salt fog chamber for the specified test time.  Panels are evaluated daily for the development of rust.  The number and size of rust spots is reported. If the rusted area is large, the percent of the panel rusted is reported.  This test can be run for a specified period of time or until failure.

ASTM B117-PTI - Salt Spray Corrosion Test - PTI Specification @ 1000 hours

ASTM B117 PTI Specification Salt Spray Corrosion Test (Post-Tensioning Institute Specification for Unbonded Single Strand Tendons Corrosion Test)

Metallic structures near seacoasts or on highways where de-icing salts are used may be exposed to salt-laden air and water.  Greases that coat cables and other structural components need to resist the effects of the salty environments to prevent corrosion and structure weakening.  This test measures the ability of greases (or gels) to lubricate and protect steel components from salty environmental exposures.

Steel panels are coated with the test compound and placed in the ASTM B117 salt spray chamber for the specification required test time.  They are then removed, cleaned, and the amount of rust on the panel is assessed and reported on the ASTM D610 scale.  This specification calls for a 5 mil coating on a type S Q-panel for 1000 hours – please specify if you would need a different thickness, panel type or test time.

           

ASTM B117-PTI - Soak Test @ 720 hrs.

ASTM B-117 PTI - 720 Hour Salt Water Immersion Test (Specification for Unbonded Single Strand Tendons - Soak Test)

When a metal coated with grease in placed in salt water, the grease may change.  It may trap water and become emulsified, it may lose its adherence to the metal or it may deteriorate.  This test looks for these types of changes.   

Test grease is coated on a metal panel.  The panel is placed in a container of salt water in a salt spray chamber for 720 hours.  The grease is then observed and any emulsification or deterioration is reported.    

ASTM D56 - Flash Point, Tag Closed Cup, -20°C to 110°C

ASTM D56 Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester

An important safety consideration in using or shipping an oil is its flash point - the lowest temperature at which its vapors, when exposed to an ignition source, will ignite and quickly self-extinguish.  This method determines flash points between 0 and 200 °F (-18 to 93°C).

A cooled sample is placed in the test cup, and the test cup is placed in the Tag Closed Cup Tester.  The temperature is slowly raised, and sample is exposed to a flame at regular intervals until the flash point is observed.  The temperature and barometric pressure are reported.  If you have an anticipated flash point for your material, please let us know the approximate temperature

ASTM D70 - Specific Gravity

ASTM D70 Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method)

Bituminous materials are used in road construction, roofing, water proofing and many other applications. The density of these materials is important for mass/volume conversions, estimation of binder content and prediction of the amount of material needed to obtain a desired thickness. If bitumen is to be separated by a hot water separation process, the density at the separation temperature is required. This test method determines the specific gravity (relative density) and density of semi-solid bituminous materials.

The sample is heated and poured into a pycnometer until the pycnometer is about ¾ full. It is then cooled and weighed. The remaining volume is filled with distilled water, the pycnometer is heated to the test temperature, and the final mass is recorded. The density is reported in kg/cubic meter.

Related tests: Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories offers five pycnometer tests for density determination. For viscous oils consider:

ASTM D1481 Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

ISO-2811 Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method

PLTL-90 Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer

For greases consider:

ISO-2811 Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method 

PLTL-90 " Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer 

For medium and low viscosity liquids consider:

ASTM D891 Specific Gravity Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals

For emulsions and pastes consider

ISO 2811 Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method

ASTM D86 - Distillation, High Temperature of Petroleum Products

ASTM D87 - Melting Point of Waxes

ASTM D88 - Viscosity Saybolt (SUS) & Calculation (Suggest D2161)

ASTM D88 Saybolt Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow (see ASTM D445).  This method measures kinematic viscosity using a Saybolt Universal Viscometer or a Saybolt Furol Viscometer. 

A Saybolt Viscometer is a wide metallic cylindrical container with a standard orifice in the bottom.  The sample is placed in the viscometer and brought to the test temperature.  The orifice is opened and the time it takes for the sample to exit is determined and reported as Saybolt Universal Seconds.  For more viscous samples, a Saybolt Furol Viscometer is used and the viscosity is reported in Saybolt Furol Seconds.

 

ASTM D91 - Precipitation Number

ASTM D91 Precipitation Number in Lubricating Oils

Precipitation number measures the amount of naphtha-insoluble particles (asphaltenes) in oils - a high precipitation number indicates a large amount of insoluble material, and a small number indicates a small amount. Precipitation numbers are normally very low in highly refined oils and higher in less refined oils. This test determines precipitation number in lubricating oils, steam cylinder stocks and black oils.

The sample is mixed with solvent and the mixture is centrifuged until a constant level of sediment is obtained. The precipitation number is reported in milliliters sediment.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

For the amount of sediment by volume:

ASTM D2273 Trace Sediment in Lubricating Oils

For the amount of sediment by mass:

ASTM D3279 n-Heptane Insolubles

FTM 3010 (Fed-Std-791 Method 3010) Gravimetric Contamination and Ash Residue by Filtration

ASTM D92 - Flash OR Fire Point, Cleveland Open Cup

ASTM D92 Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a substance will generate vapors that when exposed to a flame will momentarily ignite and quickly self-extinguish.  The fire point is the lowest temperature at which a substance will generate vapors sufficiently dense enough to ignite and sustain burning for at least 5 seconds.  In lubricants these values are important for shipping regulations and as an indicator of the safe operating ranges.  This test determines the flash point and fire point of petroleum products.  It is intended for substances with flash points between 79°C and 400°C.

The sample is placed in the test cup, slowly heated and periodically exposed to a flame.  The flash point is recorded and the sample is further heated and periodically exposed to the flame until the fire point is observed.  The temperatures are corrected for barometric pressure and reported in °C.   Please let us know the anticipated flash or fire point, when available.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

If only the flash point is of interest consider:

ASTM D56 for low viscosity substances (below 5.5cSt) with anticipated flash points below 93oC

ASTM D93 for high viscosity substances, petroleum based liquids that form surface films, or liquids with flash points from 40°C to 370°C

If both the flash point and the fire point are of interest consider:

 ASTM D1310 for flash points below 79°C, high viscosity samples or samples that tend to form surface films

 ASTM D92 for low viscosity substances with flash points between 79°C and 400°C.

 For the flammability of aerosols consider ASTM D3065. 

 For the autoignition point consider ASTM E659 or ASTM D2155.

ASTM D92 - Flash AND Fire Points, Cleveland Open Cup

ASTM D92 Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester

The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a substance will generate vapors that when exposed to a flame will momentarily ignite and quickly self-extinguish.  The fire point is the lowest temperature at which a substance will generate vapors sufficiently dense enough to ignite and sustain burning for at least 5 seconds.  In lubricants these values are important for shipping regulations and as an indicator of the safe operating ranges.  This test determines the flash point and fire point of petroleum products.  It is intended for substances with flash points between 79°C and 400°C.

The sample is placed in the test cup, slowly heated and periodically exposed to a flame.  The flash point is recorded and the sample is further heated and periodically exposed to the flame until the fire point is observed.  The temperatures are corrected for barometric pressure and reported in °C.   Please let us know the anticipated flash or fire point, when available.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

If only the flash point is of interest consider:

ASTM D56 for low viscosity substances (below 5.5cSt) with anticipated flash points below 93oC

ASTM D93 for high viscosity substances, petroleum based liquids that form surface films, or liquids with flash points from 40°C to 370°C

If both the flash point and the fire point are of interest consider:

 ASTM D1310 for flash points below 79°C, high viscosity samples or samples that tend to form surface films

 ASTM D92 for low viscosity substances with flash points between 79°C and 400°C.

 For the flammability of aerosols consider ASTM D3065. 

 For the autoignition point consider ASTM E659 or ASTM D2155.

ASTM D93 - Flash Point, Pensky-Martens Closed Cup

ASTM D93 Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

The flash point of a substance is used to establish adherence to shipping regulations and estimate flammability.    This method determines flash points from 40°C to 370°C for petroleum products or 60°C to 190°C for biodiesel fuels. 

The sample is placed in the test container and heated and stirred.  A flame is brought near the surface of the sample at regular intervals until the flash point is observed.  The flash point is reported in °C.   Please let us know the anticipated flash point, when available.

 

       

ASTM D94 - Saponification Number

ASTM D94 Saponification Number of Petroleum Products

Saponification is the hydrolysis of fats or oils to form fatty acids and glycerol. The "saponification number" gives an indication of the amount of hydrolyzeable fat in a sample. Mineral oils normally have very low saponification numbers, animal or plant based oils normally have very high saponification numbers. This test determines the saponification number of lubricants, transmission fluids and additives.

The sample is combined with a standardized potassium hydroxide solution, refluxed, and titrated with hydrochloric acid. The endpoint is determined by either colorimetrically (method A) or potentiometrically (method B). The saponification number is reported in mg KOH per gram of sample.

ASTM D95 - Water by Distillation

ASTM D95 Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation

The use, sale and refining of petroleum products is often dependent upon the amount of water present. This test determines the water content of bituminous materials and petroleum products including fuel oils and lubricating greases and oils for levels of water up to 25%.

The sample is combined with a water-immiscible solvent and refluxed to allow the co-distillation of water and solvent. The water-solvent mixture is captured in a calibrated trap, the volume of water is measured and reported as a volume percent.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

When very low levels of water are expected (10 to 25,000 ppm), consider a coulometric method:

ASTM D6304  Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

Consider a potentiometric method  when slightly higher levels of water are predicted (0.2 to 2%): 

ASTM D4377 Water in Crude Oils by Potentiometric Karl Fischer Titration

Consider the centrifuge method for levels of water up to 30%, or if both water and sediment are of interest:

ASTM D1796 Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)

ASTM D97 - Pour Point

ASTM D97 Pour Point of Petroleum Products

Oils used in transformers, mining operations and pipelines need to flow during routine use. In cold environments oils will cease to flow before they are technically frozen. The pour point is the lowest temperature at which an oil flows, below this temperature it will no longer act as a fluid. This test measures pour points between 45ºC and -72ºC.

As the sample is slowly cooled in a specified pour point tube, the tube is gently tipped and observed at regular intervals. When the oil no longer flows, the pour point is recorded and reported in degrees Celsius.

ASTM D127 - Melting Point (microcrystalline waxes)

ASTM D127 Drop Melting Point of Petroleum Wax Including Petrolatum

Different petroleum waxes soften at different temperatures. When formulating wax-containing lubricants such as mold-release agents, rope lubricants and lubricants for skis or skateboards, petroleum wax components may be selected based on softening points. This test measures the temperature at which a sample softens enough to drop from a thermometer bulb (the drop melting point) of petrolatums and waxes.

The sample is melted. A chilled thermometer is dipped into the sample to coat the bulb and then placed in cold water to solidify the sample. The thermometer is jacketed and placed in a water bath. The water bath is slowly heated until a drop of sample falls from the thermometer. The temperature is reported in ºC.

ASTM D128 - Moisture Content

ASTM D128 - Analysis of Greases

ASTM D128 - Aniline Point, Extracted Fluid (+ D611)

ASTM D128 - Ash Content

ASTM D128 (Paragraph 7.1) Analysis of Lubricating Greases - Ash Content

Ash producing substances in lubricating greases may originate from either additives (typically molybdenum or zinc compounds) or contaminants (from packaging, environment or other sources).  This method determines the percent of ash producing substances in lubricating grease.

The sample is placed in a clean, dried, crucible, heated, ignited to remove all organic components, cooled and weighed.  The percent ash is reported.  If sulfated ash is of interest (as in greases containing metallic additives) the sample is ignited in a crucible as above, treated with sulfuric acid, heated to allow the sulfating reaction to occur, dried and weighed.  The percent sulfated ash is reported. 

ASTM D128 - Fatty Acid Content

ASTM D128 - Free Alkali/Fatty Acid from Soap

ASTM D128 - Percent Soap

ASTM D128 - Percent Thickener

ASTM D128 Analysis of Lubricating Grease

This test will analyze conventional greases consisting of petroleum oils and soaps for unsaponifiable matter, water, free alkalinity, free fatty acid, fat, glycerin, and insolubles.  

A supplementary test will analyze greases which are insoluble in conventional solvents, contain non-petroleum fluids, and/or non-soap type thickeners.

Follow-up analysis of the separated components by other methods such as ICP metals or Infrared spectrograph may be requested.

ASTM D128 - Soxhlet Extraction of Oil from Grease

ASTM D130 - Copper Strip Corrosion - Oil - need time & temperature

ASTM D130 Detection of Copper Corrosion from Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test

A variety of hydrocarbon products including oils, hydraulic fluids, fuel, solvents, etc., can be tested for corrosivity to copper by use of this test.  It is limited to products with Ried Vapor pressure no greater than 18 psi (124 kPa).  A polished copper strip is immersed in the fluid and heated for a specified time and temperature after which the corrosion is rated by visual comparison to the ASTM Copper Strip Corrosion Standards.  The most typical test run is for 24 hours @ 100°C.  However, time and temperature can vary according to product type and specification.  Results are reported as a number followed by a letter according to the following scheme:

 

1. Slight            
     Tarnish
  a  Light orange, almost the same as a freshly polished strip
b  Dark orange
2. Moderate
      Tarnish
  a  claret red
b  Lavender
c  Multi colored with lavender blue or silver, or both, overlaid on claret red
d  Silvery
e  Brassy or gold
3. Dark
     Tarnish
  a  Magenta overcast on brassy strip
b  Multi colored with red and green showing (peacock), but no gray
4. Corrosion   a  Transparent black, dark gray or brown with peacock green barley showing
b  Graphite or lusterless black

ASTM D149 - Dielectric Breakdown Voltage & Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials -per gap

ASTM D149 Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials

The ability of a lubricant to resist electrical flow and current potential can be determined with this test.   The dielectric strength is the ratio of the thickness of the insulating material in mils versus the potential of the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage is the electrical potential required to overcome the material's insulating ability. These electrical properties can determine if a material is appropriate for use in a particular electrical application.

ASTM D150 - Dielectric Constant - AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity of Solid Electrical Insulation @ Ambi

ASTM D150 A C-Loss (Dissipation Factor) and Dielectric Constant (Permittivity) of Electrical Insulating Material

The ability of a lubricant to act as an electrical insulator can be measured using this test procedure. Since no insulator is perfect, the amount of electrical leakage (Dissipation Factor) will determine the degree of efficiency of insulating ability. The Dielectric Constant is a measure of the insulator's ability to resist electrical flow under increasing frequency. Together these properties help predict how the material will perform under various conditions of electrical exposure.

ASTM D150 - Dielectric Constant - AC Loss Charateristics and Permittivity of Solid Electrical Insulation @ Above

ASTM D150 A C-Loss (Dissipation Factor) and Dielectric Constant (Permittivity) of Electrical Insulating Material

The ability of a lubricant to act as an electrical insulator can be measured using this test procedure.  Since no insulator is perfect, the amount of electrical leakage (Dissipation Factor) will determine the degree of efficiency of insulating ability.  The Dielectric Constant is a measure of the insulator's ability to resist electrical flow under increasing frequency.  Together these properties help predict how the material will perform under various conditions of electrical exposure.
 

ASTM D189 - Carbon Residue, Conradson of Petroleum Products

ASTM D189 Conradson Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products

This method is intended to measure the coke-forming propensity of oils under extreme temperatures causing cracking and pyrolysis.  The sample is placed in a crucible and heated to evaporate and reduce the material to a coke-residue or 'carbon residue'.  Ash-forming additives can give an erroneous indication of coke-forming tendencies by adding to the weight of residue formed.  Carbon residue is a useful guide in the manufacture of base oils and finished lubricants.  Results differ from those obtained by ASTM D524.

ASTM D217 - Penetration, Unworked

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

 

ASTM D217 - Penetration, Worked 60 Stroke

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease Using One-Quarter and One-Half Scale Cone Equipment

D937 Cone Penetration of Petrolatum FTM 313 Penetration of Lubrication Greases After Prolonged Working

ASTM D217 - Penetration, Low Temperature, Unworked @ -40°C

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease Using One-Quarter and One-Half Scale Cone Equipment

D937 Cone Penetration of Petrolatum FTM 313 Penetration of Lubrication Greases After Prolonged Working

ASTM D217 - Penetration, Worked Stability, 10,000 Stroke

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

 

ASTM D217 - Storage Stability @ 2 months, Unworked & Worked Penetration

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease Using One-Quarter and One-Half Scale Cone Equipment

D937 Cone Penetration of Petrolatum FTM 313 Penetration of Lubrication Greases After Prolonged Working

ASTM D217 - Storage Stability @ 4 months, Unworked Worked Penetration

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

 

ASTM D217 - Penetration, Worked Stability, Prolonged 100,000 strokes

ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease

The consistency or firmness of a grease can help determine its suitability for a given application. If the consistency is too low, the grease may leak out of areas it is supposed to lubricate. If it is too high, it may not flow into areas that need lubrication. Grease that has received minimal disturbance, such as being moved from sample container to test container, is considered "unworked”. When grease is stroked (subjected to shearing action) it is considered "worked”. Stroking usually changes the consistency of grease, and grease stroked for prolonged periods of time may show further consistency changes.

This test is intended to determine the consistency of a grease by measuring the depth to which a standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The depth is measured in tenths of a millimeter and reported as a unitless number. Worked stabilities use a standard grease worker to apply a shear stress to the sample prior to measuring the penetration. This method requires 1.1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of sample. If you have a smaller quantity, please consider ASTM D1403 .  For a more severe prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration test, consider FTM 313.

Many options are available for this test. When requesting it, please choose from the following:

(1) unworked penetration – usually used for storage stability studies

(2) 60 stroke worked penetration – the standard usually used to compare various greases and to assign NLGI numbers.

(3) Worked stability (10,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during use.

(4) Prolonged worked stability (100,000 stroke) penetration – usually used to predict what will happen to grease during extended use.

(5) Low temperature worked penetration – usually used with greases intended for low temperature applications. Please specify the desired temperature.

(6) Worked penetration after cooling – usually used to predict how a grease will be affected by temperature changes.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease Using One-Quarter and One-Half Scale Cone Equipment

D937 Cone Penetration of Petrolatum FTM 313 Penetration of Lubrication Greases After Prolonged Working

ASTM D257 - Volume Resistivity - D-C Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials @ 23°C ± 2°

ASTM D257 - Volume Resistivity - D-C Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials @ Above 25°C

ASTM D287 - Gravity, API @ 60°F

ASTM D287 API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)

The API gravity system, a time honored and very widely accepted measurement, determines specific gravity of petroleum materials in °API.   API gravity can be converted to pounds per gallon, relative density, and many other useful units of measure with the conversion tables available for this purpose. API gravities decrease with increasing densities - light crude oil has an API gravity greater than 31.1°API and extra heavy crude oil has a value less than 10°API.   This method determines the °API of petroleum and petroleum products.

The sample is poured into a jacketed glass cylinder and brought to the test temperature.  A hydrometer is placed in the sample, gently spun to dislodge any adhering air bubbles, given time to equilibrate and the scale is read.  API gravity is reported in °API. 

 

 

 

 

ASTM D323 - Vapor Pressure, Reid

ASTM D323 Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)

Vapor pressure gives an indication of the evaporation rate of a substance. Substances with high vapor pressures typically evaporate more rapidly than substances with lower ones. Some localities regulate allowable vapor pressures of petroleum-based products to limit air pollution. This test determines the vapor pressure of crude oils, fuel oils and other volatile petroleum products. It may be used as a quality control tool, to assist in determining initial refinery treatment and to demonstrate adherence to local ordinances.

The sample is cooled, placed in the test chamber and brought to the test temperature. Pressure is recorded at regular intervals until a constant pressure is obtained. This pressure is reported in psi and kPa.

 

ASTM D381* - Existent Gum Content

ASTM D395 - Compression Set of Elastomers

ASTM D445 - Viscosity, Kinematic Ambient to 401°F - need temperature

ASTM D445 - Viscosity, Kinematic Low Temperature to -65°F - need temp

ASTM D445 - Kinematic Viscosity @ -40°C (w/o solids & solvents) Mil-PRF-63460

ASTM D471 - Elastomer Compatibility

ASTM D482 - Ash Content of Petroleum Products

ASTM D482 Ash Content from Petroleum Products

Petroleum products may produce ash when burned. Ash may come from dirt, rust, bituminous compounds and other sources. Ash producing substances may clog filters and increase wear in many applications.  This method determines the percent of ash producing compounds in petroleum products with no metallic additives including fuels, oils, waxes and other petroleum products.  Products containing ash forming additives should be tested according to ASTM D874 (Sulfated Ash).

The sample is placed in a clean, dry, crucible, heated, burned until no flammable material remains and ignited in a muffle furnace. The percent ash is calculated and reported.

 

 

 

ASTM D482 - Ash Prep

ASTM D482 Ash Content from Petroleum Products – Ash Prep

Some tests, such as atomic absorption (AA) require only the non-organic (ash producing) components of an oil or grease.  This test removes all carbonaceous organic material by heating the sample, igniting and burning the vapors, and placing the remaining residue in a muffle furnace.  The ash can then be further processed as needed for testing.

For a full ash content determination, please refer to our listing ”ASTM D482 Ash Content from Petroleum Products”

ASTM D512* - Chlorides

ASTM D524 - Carbon Residue, Ramsbottom

ASTM D524 Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products

This test measures the coke-forming propensity of oils under extreme temperatures causing cracking and pyrolysis. The sample is placed in a glass bulb and heated in a furnace at 550°C for 20 minutes to evaporate and reduce the material to a coke residue or 'carbon residue'. Ash forming additives can give erroneous indication of coke-forming tendencies by adding to the weight of residue formed. Carbon residue is a useful guide in the manufacture of oils and finished lubricants. Results differ from those obtained by ASTM D189.

ASTM D525 - Oxidation Induction Period (Gasoline)

ASTM D566 - Dropping Point by Fluid Bath

ASTM D566 Dropping Point of Lubricating Grease

A sample of grease is heated in the drop point cup until the sample melts or separates and runs out a small hole in the bottom of the cup.  This test may indicate the temperature at which a change in state may be anticipated under similar operating conditions.

 

ASTM D567 - Viscosity Index - calculation with 100°F & 210°F D445 viscosities

ASTM D567 Method for Calculating Viscosity Index from Viscosities at 100ºF and 210ºF

The viscosity of an oil typically decreases as temperature increases.  Viscosity index measures the change in viscosity with temperature - a high viscosity index indicates a small viscosity change with temperature.   This method determines the viscosity index of lubricating oils.

This method is considered obsolete by ASTM and has been replaced by ASTM D2270.

Note:  This method is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to our clients.

ASTM D611 - Aniline Point

ASTM D611 Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents

The Aniline Point is the lowest temperature at which equal parts of aniline and oil are completely miscible.  It is an indicator of the quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons in the oil and is useful in predicting an oil's compatibility with natural or synthetic rubber.  Aromatic compounds in an oil may cause some components of rubber to leach out, thereby weakening the rubber.  Only oils with low aniline numbers are usually considered for natural rubber applications.

In this test, equal amounts of aniline and sample are blended and heated to obtain a clear solution.  The mixture slowly cools.  The temperature at which cloudiness first appears is reported as the aniline point.

ASTM D638 - Tensile Strength of Elastomers

ASTM D664 - Acid Number, Potentiometric, 2001 or 2004 or 2009 or 2011A version

ASTM D664 Acid number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

Acids are frequently formed as a result of lubricant oxidation. These acids may change the viscosity of the lubricant, increase corrosion and wear of system components, and cause the formation of sludge, varnish and piston deposits, potentially shortening the life of the lubricant. The acid number indicates the quantity of acid in a sample – a low acid number indicates a small amount of acid, a high acid number indicates a large amount of acid.  This test determines the acid number of petroleum products, lubricants, biodiesel fuels and biodiesel blends. 

The sample is weighed into the titration vessel, dissolved in solvent and potentiometrically titrated with potassium hydroxide.  In the classic method, the data is graphed, the inflection points determined and a blank corrected applied. For the simpler pH11 method, the titration is taken to an endpoint at pH11 when no inflections are observed. The acid number is reported in milligrams KOH per gram of sample.

ASTM D664 - Acid Number, Strong, 2001 or 2004 or 2009 or 2011A version

ASTM D664 Acid number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

Acids are frequently formed as a result of lubricant oxidation.  These acids may change the viscosity of the lubricant, increase corrosion and wear of system components, and cause the formation of sludge, varnish and piston deposits, potentially shortening the life of the lubricant.  The acid number indicates the quantity of acid in a sample – a low acid number indicates a small amount of acid, a high acid number indicates a large amount of acid.  This test determines the acid number of petroleum products, lubricants, biodiesel fuels and biodiesel blends. 

The sample is weighed into the titration vessel, dissolved in solvent and potentiometrically titrated with potassium hydroxide.  In the classic method, the data is graphed, the inflection points determined and a blank corrected applied. For the simpler pH11 method, the titration is taken to an endpoint at pH11 when no inflections are observed. The acid number is reported in milligrams KOH per gram of sample.

ASTM D665 - Rust Preventative Procedure A w/Distilled Water, 4 or 24 hrs.

ASTM D665 Rust Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water

This test measures the ability of oil to protect ferrous components in the presence of either distilled or brine water.  It is appropriate for steam turbine oils, hydraulic oils and circulating oils and may be used for oils that are heavier than water. Examples of the usefulness of this test include the evaluation of oils used in steam turbines, and lubricating oils used in desalination plants.  Due to leaks or condensation, steam turbine oils may become contaminated with water, potentially causing system components to rust.   Leaks in desalination systems may be even more serious because the oil may become contaminated with salt water. 
 
A cylindrical steel rod is immersed in a mixture of the oil and water and brought to the test temperature.  The mixture is stirred for the test time and the rod is visually examined for rust.  A pass/fail rating is reported.  When requesting this test, please specify distilled water (Procedure A) or synthetic sea water (Procedure B).  For oils heavier than water, please request Procedure C and specify distilled water or synthetic sea water. 
 

ASTM D665 - Rust Preventative Procedure B w/Synthetic Sea Water, 4 or 24 hrs.

ASTM D665 Rust Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water

This test measures the ability of oil to protect ferrous components in the presence of either distilled or brine water.  It is appropriate for steam turbine oils, hydraulic oils and circulating oils and may be used for oils that are heavier than water. Examples of the usefulness of this test include the evaluation of oils used in steam turbines, and lubricating oils used in desalination plants.  Due to leaks or condensation, steam turbine oils may become contaminated with water, potentially causing system components to rust.   Leaks in desalination systems may be even more serious because the oil may become contaminated with salt water. 
 
A cylindrical steel rod is immersed in a mixture of the oil and water and brought to the test temperature.  The mixture is stirred for the test time and the rod is visually examined for rust.  A pass/fail rating is reported.  When requesting this test, please specify distilled water (Procedure A) or synthetic sea water (Procedure B).  For oils heavier than water, please request Procedure C and specify distilled water or synthetic sea water. 
 

 

ASTM D721 - Oil Content of Petroleum Waxes

ASTM D721 Oil Content of Petroleum Waxes

Wax based lubricants can be shaped into sticks making them desirable for lubricating small parts such as bolts, brushes and chains. These lubricants are also attractive for use on porous materials that absorb oil, such as wood. To make the wax easier to spread, and to instill friction-reducing and corrosion-reducing properties, oil may be added to the wax. This test determines the amount of oil present in a wax-based lubricant.

The wax sample is melted and a solvent is added to dissolve the oil. The solvent-oil solution is separated from the wax using a filter stick, as per the method. The solvent is evaporated and the remaining oil weighed. The weight percent of oil in the wax is reported.

 

ASTM D823 - Dry Film Performance

ASTM D874 - Sulfated Ash

ASTM D874 Sulfated Ash from Lubricating Oils and Additives

Many lubricating oils contain metallic additives including zinc anti-wear compounds and magnesium detergents.  The proper level of these additives is important for the lubricant to work properly.  This method determines the concentration of metals (non-lead) in fully formulated lubricating oils and additive concentrates.  It may be used as a quality control tool in new oils or as an indicator of additive depletion in used oils. 

The sample is placed in a clean, dry crucible, heated and ignited to remove carbonaceous compounds.  Sulfuric acid is added and the residue is heated to allow the sulfating reaction to occur.  The crucible is ignited in a muffle furnace, cooled and weighed.  The sulfuric acid/heat/muffle sequence is repeated until a constant weight is obtained. The percent sulfated ash is reported.

        

ASTM D877 - Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Liquids Using Disk Electrodes (125 ml min.) (Oil)

ASTM D891A - Specific Gravity Procedure A Hydrometer @ 20°C

ASTM D891 Specific Gravity, Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals

Specific gravity, apparent, is the mass of a substance relative to the mass of water at a given temperature.(This is closely related to specific gravity (relative density) which is the ratio of density of the substance to the density of water at a given temperature.) The specific gravity may help identify a substance, and in some cases may indicate the purity of a liquid. This method determines the specific gravity, apparent, by either hydrometer (method A) or pycnometer (method B).

For method A, the sample is placed into the test cylinder and brought to the test temperature. The hydrometer is inserted; the system equilibrated at the test temperature and the hydrometer is read. The specific gravity, apparent, is reported as a unitless number.  For method B, the pycnometer is cleaned, weighed, filled with water, brought to the test temperature and again weighed. The process is repeated with sample. The specific gravity, apparent, is reported as a unitless number.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

Consider a hydrometer test for oils when three decimal place accuracy is sufficient, and there is plenty of sample available:

ASTM D1298 Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity) or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

Consider a pycnometer test for solids, greases and viscous oils:

PLTL-90  Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer

Consider a digital density meter test for low and medium density oils when high accuracy is required:

ASTM D4052  Density, Relative Density and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

ASTM D891B - Specific Gravity Procedure B Pycnometer @ 20°C

ASTM D891 Specific Gravity, Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals

Specific gravity, apparent, is the mass of a substance relative to the mass of water at a given temperature.(This is closely related to specific gravity (relative density) which is the ratio of density of the substance to the density of water at a given temperature.) The specific gravity may help identify a substance, and in some cases may indicate the purity of a liquid. This method determines the specific gravity, apparent, by either hydrometer (method A) or pycnometer (method B).

For method A, the sample is placed into the test cylinder and brought to the test temperature. The hydrometer is inserted; the system equilibrated at the test temperature and the hydrometer is read. The specific gravity, apparent, is reported as a unitless number.  For method B, the pycnometer is cleaned, weighed, filled with water, brought to the test temperature and again weighed. The process is repeated with sample.  The specific gravity, apparent, is reported as a unitless number.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

Consider a hydrometer test for oils when three decimal place accuracy is sufficient, and there is plenty of sample available:

ASTM D1298 Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity) or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

Consider a pycnometer test for solids, greases and viscous oils:

PLTL-90  Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer

Consider a digital density meter test for low and medium density oils when high accuracy is required:

ASTM D4052  Density, Relative Density and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

ASTM D892 - Foaming Characteristics Seq. I

ASTM D892 Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

This method measures the tendency of an oil to foam by aerating a fixed volume of oil at a fixed flow rate of air through a gas diffuser submerged in oil. The volume of foam after 5 minutes aeration and the volume of foam after 10 minutes settling are recorded. Sequence I, II and III are performed at 24°C (75°F), 93.5°C (200°F) and 24°C (75°F) respectively.

After the foam collapses from Sequence II, the same aliquot is tested in Sequence III.  This is done to address concerns associated with agitation, dispersion of anti-foaming agents, and possible presence of volatiles which can effect results. Sequence IV is a special procedure for Mercon Transmission Fluid with increased flow rate and temperature.

Note: Foam is not entrained air.  

ASTM D892 - Foaming Characteristics Seq. I, II, III

ASTM D892 Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

This method measures the tendency of an oil to foam by aerating a fixed volume of oil at a fixed flow rate of air through a gas diffuser submerged in oil. The volume of foam after 5 minutes aeration and the volume of foam after 10 minutes settling are recorded. Sequence I, II and III are performed at 24°C (75°F), 93.5°C (200°F) and 24°C (75°F) respectively.

After the foam collapses from Sequence II, the same aliquot is tested in Sequence III.  This is done to address concerns associated with agitation, dispersion of anti-foaming agents, and possible presence of volatiles which can effect results. Sequence IV is a special procedure for Mercon Transmission Fluid with increased flow rate and temperature.

Note: Foam is not entrained air.  

ASTM D892 - Foaming Characteristics Seq. I,II,III,IV (Mercon)

ASTM D892 Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

This method measures the tendency of an oil to foam by aerating a fixed volume of oil at a fixed flow rate of air through a gas diffuser submerged in oil. The volume of foam after 5 minutes aeration and the volume of foam after 10 minutes settling are recorded. Sequence I, II and III are performed at 24°C (75°F), 93.5°C (200°F) and 24°C (75°F) respectively.

After the foam collapses from Sequence II, the same aliquot is tested in Sequence III.  This is done to address concerns associated with agitation, dispersion of anti-foaming agents, and possible presence of volatiles which can effect results. Sequence IV is a special procedure for Mercon Transmission Fluid with increased flow rate and temperature.

Note: Foam is not entrained air.  

ASTM D893 - Pentane & Toluene Insolubles

ASTM D924 - Dissipation (Power) Factor and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) @ 23°C ± 2&de

ASTM D924 - Dissipation (Power) Factor and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) above 25°C

ASTM D937 - Penetration (used for softer unrefined waxes)

ASTM D937 Cone Penetration of Petrolatum

When formulators of lubricants, cosmetics and many other products need a low toxicity base ingredient that melts around body temperature, they often choose petrolatum.  The consistency of the chosen petrolatum will help determine the firmness of the final formulation.  This test measures petrolatum consistency.

The petrolatum sample is melted and slowly cooled to 25ºC.  The penetration value is determined by allowing a standard cone to fall into the sample as per the method.  The depth to which the cone sinks is reported in tenths of a millimeter.

ASTM D938 - Congealing Point

ASTM D942 - Pressure Vessel Oxidation @ 100 hours - per run

ASTM D942 Oxidative Stability of Lubricating Grease by the Oxygen Pressure Vessel Method

In producing a product that customers can depend upon, every batch must meet the same high standards.  Customers want to be able to depend on batch-to-batch consistency.  This test is intended as a quality control tool to insure that the level of antioxidants in a grease is adequate from one batch to the next.

A specified mass of grease is placed in the pressure vessel.  The vessel is pressurized with oxygen and heated to the test temperature.  The pressure drop caused by oxygen uptake during the test is measured and reported in psi or kPa.  This test normally runs for 100 hours and/or 500 hours.  Other times and temperatures are available .

 

ASTM D942 - Pressure Vessel Oxidation @ 500 hours - per run

ASTM D942 Oxidative Stability of Lubricating Grease by the Oxygen Pressure Vessel Method

In producing a product that customers can depend upon, every batch must meet the same high standards.  Customers want to be able to depend on batch-to-batch consistency.  This test is intended as a quality control tool to insure that the level of antioxidants in a grease is adequate from one batch to the next.

A specified mass of grease is placed in the pressure vessel.  The vessel is pressurized with oxygen and heated to the test temperature.  The pressure drop caused by oxygen uptake during the test is measured and reported in psi or kPa.  This test normally runs for 100 hours and/or 500 hours.  Other times and temperatures are available upon request.

 

ASTM D942 - Pressure Vessel Oxidation @ 1000 hours per run

ASTM D942 Oxidative Stability of Lubricating Grease by the Oxygen Pressure Vessel Method

In producing a product that customers can depend upon, every batch must meet the same high standards.  Customers want to be able to depend on batch-to-batch consistency.  This test is intended as a quality control tool to insure that the level of antioxidants in a grease is adequate from one batch to the next.

A specified mass of grease is placed in the pressure vessel.  The vessel is pressurized with oxygen and heated to the test temperature.  The pressure drop caused by oxygen uptake during the test is measured and reported in psi or kPa.  This test normally runs for 100 hours and/or 500 hours.  Other times and temperatures are available. 

 

ASTM D943 - Oxidation Stability (TOST) initial set-up fee (running time additional $4.50 per day)

ASTM D943 Oxidation Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oils

Oils exposed to atmospheric oxygen may form sludge and carboxylic acids in a reaction catalyzed by water and metals.  To lessen the rate of oxidation, antioxidants are added to these oils.  This test predicts the effectiveness of antioxidants, particularly in steam turbine oils, hydraulic fluids and circulating oils. 

Oxygen is bubbled through heated sample oil containing an iron-copper catalyst and water.  After three weeks, a small aliquot of oil is removed and the acid number is determined.  Aliquots are removed and tested periodically thereafter.  The time it takes for the acid number to reach 2 mg KOH/g oil is reported.  We routinely run this test up to 2000 hours.  If you would like a longer period  of time, please let us know.

ASTM D971 -

Interfacial Tension @ 20°C or 25°C

ASTM D971 Interfacial Tension of Oil against Water by the Ring Method

The surface tension of an oil provides a relative indication of its capillary action, its ability to spread, and its ability to penetrate small spaces. The tendency to form small droplets and to puddle on smooth surfaces can also be indicated. In mineral oils, such as electrical insulating oils, small amounts of polar contaminants may change the properties and effectiveness of the oil. Interfacial tension can be used to indicate the level of these contaminants - In general, higher values indicate lower levels of contaminants. This test determines the interfacial tension of oils or liquids and may be used on new oils as a quality control tool and for service oils as an indication of the degree of deterioration.

Using a tensiometer, as per the method, water, the platinum ring, and the sample oil are carefully placed in the apparatus so as to avoid mixing of the layers. The ring is slowly raised until it passes between the water and oil layers. The interfacial surface tension of the sample is determined and reported in mN/m or dynes/cm as required.

Surface tension may be measured simply as the oil surface against air. The apparatus and procedure are similar.  The value is referred to as "surface tension" rather than "interfacial surface tension".

ASTM D972 - Evaporation Loss @ 6 1/2 hours - need temperature

ASTM D972 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Grease and Oils

This method determines loss in mass of a grease or oil by passing heated air over the weighed sample for a fixed time (typically 22 hours). Because the air is heated by passing through a fixed length of tubing immersed in the same oil bath as the test cell, the actual temperature which the sample is subject to is less than the test temperature. The differential is significant (8, 10, 12°F or more) depending on test temperature. The highest test temperature is limited by the use of an oil bath (typically 300°F).

ASTM D972 - Evaporation Loss @ 22 hours - need temperature

ASTM D972 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Grease and Oils

This method determines loss in mass of a grease or oil by passing heated air over the weighed sample for a fixed time (typically 22 hours). Because the air is heated by passing through a fixed length of tubing immersed in the same oil bath as the test cell, the actual temperature which the sample is subject to is less than the test temperature. The differential is significant (8, 10, 12°F or more) depending on test temperature. The highest test temperature is limited by the use of an oil bath (typically 300°F).

ASTM D972 - Evaporation Loss @ 72 hours - need temperature

ASTM D972 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Grease and Oils

This method determines loss in mass of a grease or oil by passing heated air over the weighed sample for a fixed time (typically 22 hours). Because the air is heated by passing through a fixed length of tubing immersed in the same oil bath as the test cell, the actual temperature which the sample is subject to is less than the test temperature. The differential is significant (8, 10, 12°F or more) depending on test temperature. The highest test temperature is limited by the use of an oil bath (typically 300°F).

ASTM D972 - Evaporation Loss @ 500 hours - need temperature (Add $1/hr for additional run time)

ASTM D972 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Grease and Oils

This method determines loss in mass of a grease or oil by passing heated air over the weighed sample for a fixed time (typically 22 hours). Because the air is heated by passing through a fixed length of tubing immersed in the same oil bath as the test cell, the actual temperature which the sample is subject to is less than the test temperature. The differential is significant (8, 10, 12°F or more) depending on test temperature. The highest test temperature is limited by the use of an oil bath (typically 300°F).

ASTM D974 - Neutralization Number - Color

ASTM D974 – Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration

Many lubricants contain acidic or basic components.  As the lubricant ages, the quantity of these components may change due to oxidation and degradation – typically acidic components increase and basic ones decrease.  This test determines the acid number or base number of sample oil.  Acid number is a measure of the quantity of acidic components, base number is measure of the quantity of basic components. This test is useful both for quality control of new oils and evaluation of service oils.

The sample is weighed into the titration vessel, titration solvent and indicator are added and the mixture is swirled.  The resulting color determines if the acid number or the base number is to be determined.  If the acid number is to be determined, the mixture is titrated with potassium hydroxide.  If the base number is to be determined, the mixture is titrated with hydrochloric acid.  The endpoint is determined at the color change.  If the strong acid number is to be determined, boiling water is added to the sample, the water layer is extracted and titrated with potassium hydroxide.  Reported is the acid number, strong acid number or the base number in mg KOH per gram of sample.

ASTM D1078 - Distillation Range of Volatile Organic Liquids

ASTM D1092 - Apparent Viscosity of Greases - 1 nozzle

ASTM D1092 Measuring Apparent Viscosity of Lubricating Greases

Stationary grease requires pressure to start flowing.  Once movement begins, a different amount of pressure, usually (but not always) less, is required to keep it flowing.  Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a substance.  Since a moving grease usually shows less resistance to flow than a stationary one, its viscosity appears to change as the shear rate changes, thus grease is a non-Newtonian fluid.  The viscosity of grease observed when the grease is flowing, the apparent viscosity is determined in this method.

In this test, grease is packed into a large cylinder, which is fitted at one end with a nozzle and the other with a hydraulic piston.  Pressure is applied to the hydraulic piston, which causes the grease to exit through the nozzle.  When the grease is flowing steadily, the pressure is recorded,  and the apparent viscosity and shear rate are calculated.  Eight different nozzle diameters are tested.  The report includes a graph of apparent viscosity in poise versus shear rate in seconds-1, and the data used to generate the graph. When requesting this test, please specify the test temperature.

ASTM D1092 - Apparent Viscosity of Greases - 8 nozzles with graph

ASTM D1092 Measuring Apparent Viscosity of Lubricating Greases

Stationary grease requires pressure to start flowing.  Once movement begins, a different amount of pressure, usually (but not always) less, is required to keep it flowing.  Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a substance.  Since a moving grease usually shows less resistance to flow than a stationary one, its viscosity appears to change as the shear rate changes, thus grease is a non-Newtonian fluid.  The viscosity of grease observed when the grease is flowing, the apparent viscosity is determined in this method. 

In this test, grease is packed into a large cylinder, which is fitted at one end with a nozzle and the other with a hydraulic piston.  Pressure is applied to the hydraulic piston, which causes the grease to exit through the nozzle.  When the grease is flowing steadily, the pressure is recorded,  and the apparent viscosity and shear rate are calculated.  Eight different nozzle diameters are tested.  The report includes a graph of apparent viscosity in poise versus shear rate in seconds-1, and the data used to generate the graph. When requesting this test, please specify the test temperature.

ASTM D1093 - Acidity of Water Layer and distillation residues

ASTM D1093 - Acidity of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Their Distillation Residues

Oil refining involves a series distillations that separate petroleum into fractions based on boiling point.  After the highest boiling fraction is removed, a residue remains that may be further processed to make asphalt, petroleum waxes and other materials.  The acidity or basicity of the residue helps determine further processing steps.  Likewise the acidity or basicity of the initial hydrocarbon mixture may be important for processing considerations.  This test determines the acidity or basicity of hydrocarbon liquids and their distillation residues. 

Water is added to the sample, the mixture is vigorously shaken, centrifuged and the layers are separated.  If the acidity is to be determined, methyl orange indicator is added.  If the resulting solution is pink or red solution it is reported as “acidic”.  If basicity is to be determined, phenolphthalein is added and if the resulting solution is pink or red, the material is reported as “basic”.  To determine the acidity or basicity of the distillation residue, the hydrocarbon is distilled according to ASTM D86 or ASTM D1078, water is added to the resulting residue, and the mixture is shaken, centrifuged, analyzed as above and reported as “acidic” or “basic”.

          

ASTM D1119 - Ash Content of Engine Coolants

ASTM D1120 - Boiling Point

ASTM D1121 - Reserve Alkalinity of Antifreeze

ASTM D1121 - Reserve Alkalinity of Engine Coolants and Antirusts

Metals in engine cooling systems are prone to acid-catalyzed corrosion. If coolants become acidic, such as from exhaust gas leakage or coolant oxidation, system components may be at risk of damage. Buffers are often added to maintain pH at the proper level. The test determines the reserve alkalinity of a coolant; how much acid a coolant can absorb before it reaches a pH of 5.5. It may be used for new or used coolants, anti-rust compounds, coolant additives and aqueous dilutions of coolants.

The sample is placed in a beaker and distilled water is added if needed to create the proper concentration. The solution is titrated with a standardized hydrochloric acid solution to a pH of 5.5. The reserve alkalinity is reported in ml of 0.100N HCl per 10ml sample.

ASTM D1122 - Specific Gravity @ 60°F

ASTM D1133 - Kauri Butanol Value of Hydrocarbon Solvents

ASTM D1133  Kauri-Butanol Value of Hydrocarbon Solvents

Kauri-butanol is a clear, standardized solution used to estimate the ability of solvents to dissolve gums, oils and resins. In general, higher values correspond to higher solvency abilities. This test determines kauri-butanol values.

The sample is titrated into the clear kauri-butanol reagent, causing the resulting mixture to turn cloudy. The end point is determined at the point of obscurity. The value obtained is compared to toluene and heptane standards and reported as the kauri-butanol value.  

ASTM D1159* - Bromine Number by Electrometric Titration

ASTM D1160* - Distillation under Reduced Pressure

ASTM D1169 - Volume Resistivity - Specific Resistance of Electrical Insulting Liquids @ 23°C ± 2°

ASTM D1169 Specific Resistance (Resistivity) of Electrical Insulating Liquids

Electrical equipment such as transformers generate high voltages during routine use.  The components in these systems are protected from electrical damage by insulating fluids with high electrical resistances.  This test determines the resistance in a standard sample volume – the volume resistivity.  

The volume resistivity is determined using both normal and reverse polarities.  The average is calculated and reported in ohm-cm.  We run this test at 25oC and 500 volts.  At your request, we can use temperatures up to 100oC  - please contact us for temperatures below 25oC.   The voltage can also be adjusted to meet your needs.

ASTM D1169 - Volume Resistivity - Specific Resistance of Electrical Insulting Liquids above 25°C

ASTM D1169 Specific Resistance (Resistivity) of Electrical Insulating Liquids

Electrical equipment such as transformers generate high voltages during routine use.  The components in these systems are protected from electrical damage by insulating fluids with high electrical resistances.  This test determines the resistance in a standard sample volume – the volume resistivity.  

The volume resistivity is determined using both normal and reverse polarities.  The average is calculated and reported in ohm-cm.  We run this test at 25oC and 500 volts.  At your request, we can use temperatures up to 100oC  - please contact us for temperatures below 25oC.   The voltage can also be adjusted to meet your needs.

ASTM D1177 - Freezing Point

 

ASTM D1177 - Freezing Point of Aqueous Engine Coolants

Engine coolants are typically aqueous glycol solutions formulated to protect the engines from thermal damage during normal operation. Idle engines in very cold environments risk coolant freezing, putting engines at risk in two ways:  (1) Upon start up, the coolant will not offer adequate protection, (2) Coolant expansion during freezing may damage hoses and other system components. The freezing point of coolants is determined in this test.  

The sample is placed in a cooling tube fitted with a temperature measuring device and a spiral stirring rod. The temperature is lowered and recorded at regular intervals while the sample is thoroughly agitated. The temperature versus time graph is generated and the freezing point is determined by the deflection on the curve. This freezing point is reported in ºC.

 

ASTM D1186 - Dry Film Thickness - See ASTM D7091

ASTM D1209 - Color - Platinum Cobalt Scale

ASTM D1209 Color of Clear Liquids (Platinum-Cobalt Scale)

Highly refined lubricating oils are usually very pale yellow to colorless. Contaminated or less refined samples may have a darker yellow color.  This test determines the degree of yellow in clear liquids using the Platinum-Cobalt (APHA color) scale – which goes from 0 to 18 - a smaller number indicates a lighter color.

The sample is placed in the sample cell of a spectrophotometer.  It is compared to a set of standard solutions, and the color that most closely matches the sample is reported. 

ASTM D1218 - Refractive Index of Viscous Materials @ 20°C or 25°C

ASTM D1218 Refractive Index and Refractive Dispersion of Hydrocarbon Liquids

The characteristic appearance of a transparent liquids is partially determined by its refractive index, or ability to bend light. Refractive indexes of lubricants and hydrocarbons tend to increase with average molecular weight, density, purity and degree of saturation. This test determines the refractive index of liquids. It may be used as a quality control tool or to compare homologous series of compounds. It is appropriate for liquids with no suspended particles at the test temperature.

The refractometer used in this test consists of a prism box, an adjustable telescopic eyepiece and a sodium arc lamp. The sample is placed in the prism box and brought to the test temperature. The telescopic eyepiece is adjusted to determine the angle at which light just passes through the sample. This is compared to a calibration curve created using a known standard and reported as a unitless number. Please specify the desired temperature.

 

ASTM D1261 - Bomb Copper, Corrosion of Greases

ASTM D1263 - Wheel Bearing Leakage of Greases

ASTM D1263 - Leakage Tendencies of Automotive Wheel Bearing Greases

Automobile wheel bearings are exposed to high speeds, high loads and high temperatures. To extend bearing life, and to avoid unexpected bearing failure, the grease protecting these wheel bearings needs to resist slumping, separating and softening.  This test quantitatively determines bearing leakage and qualitatively reports observations of the grease appearance at the end of the test.

A specified quantity of test grease is applied to tapered roller bearings, and the bearings are put into a wheel hub spindle assembly. The torque, temperature and revolutions per minute are adjusted and the bearing is spun for the time specified in the test. Reported are the weight of grease lost and any visual observations of varnish, gum or lacquer-like material that has formed.

This test is considered obsolete by ASTM. It has been replaced by ASTM D4290 which exposes the grease to harsher conditions.

Note: This test is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to our clients.

 

ASTM D1264 - Water Washout Characteristics @ 100°F/38°C (Per run)

ASTM D1264 Determining The Water Washout Characteristics Of Lubricating Greases

A standard ABEC 6204 test bearing is packed with 4 grams of the grease to be tested.  The bearing is rotated at 600 rpm in the water spray chamber at 100°F for one hour.  300 mls of water per minute are sprayed at the bearing assembly.  The percent weight loss of the grease carried away with the water is reported.  This test is a relative measure of a grease's ability to resist removal by water.

 

ASTM D1264 - Water Washout Characteristics @ 106°F/41°C (Per run)

ASTM D1264 Determining The Water Washout Characteristics Of Lubricating Greases at 41°C

A standard ABEC 6204 test bearing is packed with 4 grams of the grease to be tested.  The bearing is rotated at 600 rpm in the water spray chamber at 106°F (41°C) for one hour.  300 mls of water per minute are sprayed at the bearing assembly.  The percent weight loss of the grease carried away with the water is reported.  This test is a relative measure of a grease's ability to resist removal by water.

 

ASTM D1264 - Water Washout Characteristics @ 174°F/79°C (Per run)

ASTM D1264 Determining The Water Washout Characteristics Of Lubricating Greases

A standard ABEC 6204 test bearing is packed with 4 grams of the grease to be tested.  The bearing is rotated at 600 rpm in the water spray chamber at 174°F (79°C) for one hour.  300 mls of water per minute are sprayed at the bearing assembly.  The percent weight loss of the grease carried away with the water is reported.  This test is a relative measure of a grease's ability to resist removal by water.

 

ASTM D1275 - Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Oils

ASTM D1275 Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Oils

Insulating oils (transformer oils) protect transformer coils from electrical and thermal damage.    If corrosive sulfur compounds are present in the oil, they may react with system components and compromise performance.  This test determines the presence of corrosive sulfur in insulating oils.  It has two options:  Method A (140°C, 19 hours) and a Method B (150°C, 48 hours).   Method B is normally the preferred method.

The sample oil is placed in the test vessel and a freshly polished copper strip is added.  Nitrogen is bubbled through the oil, the vessel is covered and heated to the test temperature for the test time.  The copper strip is removed, cleaned and examined.  Any sulfur compounds present in the sample will react with the copper to form copper sulfide, a brownish-black substance. The level of corrosion as described in ASTM D130 (“1A” is no corrosion, “4C” is heavy corrosion) is reported.

This method is considered obsolete by ASTM

NOTE:  This test is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to our clients.

 

 

ASTM D1287 - pH of Engine Coolants and Antirusts (Glycol)

ASTM D1287 pH of Engine Coolants and Antirusts

Engines generate heat during normal operation. Coolants absorb and dissipate this heat to lessen the risk of thermal damage to system components. If the coolant degrades and becomes acidic during use, metals in the cooling system may be at risk of acid damage, hence coolants often contain buffers and acid-absorbing additives. This test determines the pH of engine coolants and antirusts.

The sample is diluted with water if necessary. The pH is determined with a calibrated electrode system and reported to the nearest 0.1 pH unit. Please specify the desired dilution.

ASTM D1298 - Gravity, Specific @ 60°/60°F

ASTM D1298 Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity) or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method - Please see our description for ASTM D4052  for a discussion on density, specific gravity and API gravity.

A hydrometer is a calibrated, weighted glass bulb with a cylindrical stem. When the hydrometer is placed in a liquid sample, the bulb and part of the stem become submerged. The stem is marked with a graduated scale that is read at the submersion line. Hydrometers vary in weight and markings - different hydrometers are used for API gravity than for density (although the value from one can be used to calculate the other). The sample is placed into the test cylinder and brought to the test temperature. The appropriate hydrometer is gently placed in the sample, and allowed to equilibrate. The scale on the hydrometer is read and the density (in g/ml), relative density (unitless number) or API gravity (OAPI) is determined and reported.

 

ASTM D1310 - Flash Point, Tag Open Cup

ASTM D1310 Flash Point and Fire Point of Liquids by Tag Open-Cup Apparatus

The flash point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the substance, when exposed to an ignition source, will ignite and quickly self-extinguish. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which a substance, when exposed to an ignition source, will ignite and burn for at least five seconds. This method determines both the flash point and the fire point of a substance. It is for use in samples in which both points are below 163ºC.

The sample is cooled if necessary, placed in the Tag Open Cup Apparatus and slowly heated. The temperatures at which the flash point and the fire point are observed are reported along with the barometric pressure. If you have an anticipated flash point, please let us know the approximate temperature.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ASTM D-56 Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester - use this test for low viscosity substances (below 5.5cSt) when only the flash point is of interest. This test is intended for substances with flash points below 93oC

ASTM D-92    Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester - use this test for petroleum products other than fuel oil when both the flash point and the fire point are of interest. It is intended for substances with anticipated flash points of 79oC to 400oC;

ASTM D-93    Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester  - use this test for distillate fuels (including kerosene, heating oil, turbine fuels and biodiesel blends) when only the flash point is of interest. This test is suitable for high viscosity substances, petroleum based liquids that form surface films, and substances that may have small but significant components with low flash points. This test is intended for flash points above 60oC .

ASTM D1321 - Penetration of Waxes

ASTM D1331 - Surface Tension

ASTM D1331 Surface and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of Surface Active Agents

For oil to protect a metal, it must first "wet" or coat the metal. Surface tension gives an indication of oil's metal-wetting ability. In general, the lower the surface tension of an oil, the greater its wetting ability. This test determines the surface tension of oils.

 

The force that separates oil and water into two layers is interfacial tension. Interfacial tension may indicate how well oil will displace water to coat moist metal. Decreases in interfacial tension of service oil may indicate contamination or oxidation.

Both surface tension and interfacial tension are measured using a du Nouy Tensiometer which has a platinum ring attached to a calibrated force mechanism. The ring is placed slightly below the surface of the oil (surface tension) or water (interfacial tension). The force on the ring is gradually increased until it breaks through the surface of the oil or water. The measured force and the sample density are used to calculate the surface or interfacial tension. The values are reported in dyne-cm.  Please specify the desired temperature.

ASTM D1353 - Non-Volatile Residue

ASTM D1353 Nonvolatile Matter in Volatile Solvents for Use in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Products

Degreasers and spray lubricants often contain volatile solvents that evaporate after product delivery to leave the treated surface coated with the intended product.  If the solvent contains nonvolatile matter such as additives, contaminants or degradation products, solvent residue may remain after evaporation potentially changing product attributes.  This method determines the amount of nonvolatile residue in volatile solvents.  

The sample is placed in an evaporating dish, heated, cooled and weighed.  The heating/cooling/weighing cycle is repeated until a constant weight is obtained.  The nonvolatile residue per 100 ml sample is reported.

        

ASTM D1364 - Water in Volatile Solvents

ASTM D1364 – Water in Volatile Solvents (Fischer Reagent Titration Method)

This method potentiometrically determines the amount of water in volatile organic solvents and chemical intermediates in paint, varnish, lacquer and related products.

 

ASTM D1384 - Glassware Corrosion of Antifreeze per Run

ASTM D1384 Corrosion Test for Engine Coolants in Glassware

Coolants used in engines may come in contact with many types of metals. For instance, radiators in newer engines contain aluminum, and older engines contain brass and copper; thermostats contain copper; engines contain steel; water pump housings contain cast iron and cast aluminum. A coolant that reacts with any of these metals may not be appropriate for use in engines. This test screens coolants for reactivity with copper, solder, brass, steel, cast aluminum and cast iron. It is intended for new, unused coolants.

The metals are prepared as per the method. The coolant is diluted using specially prepared "corrosive water" to simulate changes a coolant may undergo during use. The prepared metals and prepared sample are placed in a beaker fitted with a rubber stopper, condenser and aerator tube. The mixture is brought to the test temperature, aeration is started and the sample is refluxed for the test time. At the conclusion of the test, the metals are removed, cleaned, dried and weighed. The weight change in the metals is reported.

ASTM D1400 - Film Appearance & Thickness

ASTM D1401 - Emulsion Characteristics @54°C or 82°C

ASTM D1401 Water Separability of petroleum Oils and Synthetic Fluids

This method measures the ability of oil and water to separate.  40 ml of oil and 40 ml of water are mixed at test temperature and separation in ml is observed at 5 minute intervals until the emulsion reduces to 3 ml or less. Oils with viscosity at 40°C from 28.8 to 90 cSt. are tested at 54°C.  Oils with viscosity at 40°C greater than 90 cSt. are tested at 82°C. A completely different method ASTM D2711 is available for medium to high viscosity oils which employs more vigorous mixing.

ASTM D1403 - Penetration, Unworked or Worked,1/4 Scale

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease using one-quarter and one-half scale Equipment

This test is intended to give the same information as ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease, using a smaller sample size. Although less precise than ASTM D217, this method is intended for use when only a small amount of sample is available. Depending on the quantity of sample available, the cone may be either one-half scale (50 grams of sample) or one-quarter scale (10 grams of sample). This test measures the depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which a one-half scale or a one-quarter scale standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The predicted full scale penetration value is calculated and reported.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you wish a one-quarter scale or a one-half scale cone, and a worked or unworked penetration. Also please let us know if you wish any deviations from the ASTM method, such as a temperature other than 25ºC.

ASTM D1403 - Penetration, Unworked or Worked, 1/2 Scale

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease using one-quarter and one-half scale Equipment

This test is intended to give the same information as ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease, using a smaller sample size. Although less precise than ASTM D217, this method is intended for use when only a small amount of sample is available. Depending on the quantity of sample available, the cone may be either one-half scale (50 grams of sample) or one-quarter scale (10 grams of sample). This test measures the depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which a one-half scale or a one-quarter scale standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The predicted full scale penetration value is calculated and reported.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you wish a one-quarter scale or a one-half scale cone, and a worked or unworked penetration. Also please let us know if you wish any deviations from the ASTM method, such as a temperature other than 25ºC.

ASTM D1403 - Penetration, Low Temperature, Unworked @ 0°C to -40°C

ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease using one-quarter and one-half scale Equipment

This test is intended to give the same information as ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease, using a smaller sample size. Although less precise than ASTM D217, this method is intended for use when only a small amount of sample is available. Depending on the quantity of sample available, the cone may be either one-half scale (50 grams of sample) or one-quarter scale (10 grams of sample). This test measures the depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which a one-half scale or a one-quarter scale standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The predicted full scale penetration value is calculated and reported.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you wish a one-quarter scale or a one-half scale cone, and a worked or unworked penetration. Also please let us know if you wish any deviations from the ASTM method, such as a temperature other than 25ºC.

ASTM D1404 - Deleterious Particles in Greases

ASTM D1404 Estimation of Deleterious Particles in Lubricating Grease

Some particles in grease, such as graphite and molybdenum disulfide are intentionally added to assist in the lubrication process. Other particles, called deleterious particles, may also be present in new or used greases. Deleterious particles may arise from contaminated raw materials, poor storage leading to dimerization and agglomeration of additives, and processing errors in filtration, mixing, milling and temperature control. Deleterious particles in used greases typically come from the environment or arise from wear debris. These particles may be classified as "abrasive" or "non-abrasive". Abrasive particles may damage system components and cause premature bearing failure. This test determines the amount of abrasive deleterious particles in lubricating greases. It may be used as a quality control tool for new greases, to determine particle levels in service greases and to determine the level of abrasive particles in molybdenum disulfide and graphite raw materials.

The grease is placed between two specially prepared plastic sheets. A standard load is applied and the sheets are rotated against one another in a prescribed arc. The apparatus is disassembled, and the sheets are examined for the arc-shaped scratches resulting from deleterious particles. The total number of scratches on both sheets of plastic is reported.

ASTM D1414 - Rubber Swell of 'O' Rings

ASTM D1478 - Low Temperature Torque - need temperature

ASTM D1478 Low Temperature Torque of Ball Bearing Grease

The torque resulting from grease lubricated ball bearings rotated at one rpm is measured.  The test is designed for temperatures 0°F (-20°C) and below.  Torques greater than 35,000 g-cm (3.5 N-m) are considered to be technically frozen.  Most military grease specifications consider 10,000 g-cm (1 N-m) to be the maximum usable limit for adequate lubrication at low temperatures.  Test temperatures to -73°C can be accommodated.

ASTM D1478 - Low Temperature Torque - w/Preconditioning as per BMS 3-25C Type II

ASTM D1478 Low Temperature Torque of Ball Bearing Grease

The torque resulting from grease lubricated ball bearings rotated at one rpm is measured.  The test is designed for temperatures 0°F (-20°C) and below.  Torques greater than 35,000 g-cm (3.5 N-m) are considered to be technically frozen.  Most military grease specifications consider 10,000 g-cm (1 N-m) to be the maximum usable limit for adequate lubrication at low temperatures.  Test temperatures to -73°C can be accommodated. 

Preconditioning of the grease is as per Boeing specification BMS 3-25C for Vaccuum Stable Lubricants Type II and Type III.  The grease is  exposed to a 10-6 torr,  heated to 290ºF and held for 72 hours.

 

 

ASTM D1481 - Density by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer up to 100°C - per temp

ASTM D1481 - Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

Viscous oils frequently require mass/volume conversions whether they are used as lubricants or in formulations. This method determines density and relative density of viscous oils.

Related pycnometer tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ISO-2811 "Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method"

PLTL-90 "Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer"

For bituminous materials consider ASTM D70 "Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method)"

For medium and low viscosity liquids consider "ASTM D891 Specific Gravity Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals"

For emulsions and pastes consider ISO 2811 "Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method"

ASTM D1481 - Density by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer over 100°C - per temp

ASTM D1481 - Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

Viscous oils frequently require mass/volume conversions whether they are used as lubricants or in formulations. This method determines density and relative density of viscous oils.

Related pycnometer tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ISO-2811 "Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method"

PLTL-90 "Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer"

For bituminous materials consider ASTM D70 "Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method)"

For medium and low viscosity liquids consider "ASTM D891 Specific Gravity Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals"

For emulsions and pastes consider ISO 2811 "Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method"

ASTM D1500 - Color, ASTM Color Scale

ASTM D1500 ASTM Co1or or Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)

Consumers often associate lubricant color with quality, uniformity and as a visual identifier. End users may rely on color to ensure that the correct lubricant is used in the proper application.  Producers may use color to determine the degree of refinement and/or the presence of contaminants.  This test determines the color of lubricating oils, heating oils and diesel fuel oils on the ASTM color scale, which goes from 0 to 8 with 0 being clear to pale yellow and 8 being deep red to dark.   It may be used as a bench mark quality control tool, a processing aid or for research applications.

The sample fluid is placed in the test compartment of a colorimeter, and water is placed in the control cell.  Standard color disks are placed behind the water until the color that best matches the sample is found.  The ASTM color scale number is read and reported. 

ASTM D1533 - Water Content

ASTM D1533 Water in Insulating Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

Water in electrical insulating fluids may cause deterioration, possibly decreasing dielectric breakdown voltages and lessening abilities to protect expensive electrical equipment.

This test coulometrically measures the water content of electrical insulating fluids.

ASTM D1552* - Sulfur by Ignition

ASTM D1613 - Acidity in Volatile Solvents & Chemical Intermediates

ASTM D1613 Acidity in Volatile Solvents and Chemical Intermediates Used in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Products

Organic compounds and hydrocarbon mixtures may have acidity resulting from contamination, aging, and improper storage or conditions during manufacture. This acid may lead to problems when using these chemicals as solvents or reactants. This test determines low levels of acidity (less than 0.05%) in organic compounds and hydrocarbon mixtures including alcohols, ketones, ethers, esters and light distillate petroleum fractions.

The sample is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask, solvent and indicator are added and the sample is titrated with sodium hydroxide. The mg of sodium hydroxide per gram of sample is reported.

ASTM D1721 - Oxidizable Substance

ASTM D1722 - Water Miscibility of Water -Soluble Solvents

ASTM D1742 - Oil Separation, Storage, of Greases @ 24 hours

ASTM D1742 - Oil Separation, Storage, of Greases @ 48 hours

ASTM D1742 - Oil Separation, Storage, of Greases @ 96 hours

ASTM D1742 - Oil Separation, Storage, of Greases @ 168 hours

ASTM D1743 - Rust Preventive Properties of Greases

ASTM D1743 Determining Corrosion Preventative Properties of Lubricating Greases

Steel bearings exposed to moisture are prone to rust. To prevent this, bearings are lubricated with grease containing corrosion-inhibiting additives. This test determines relative ability of a grease to prevent rust in bearings, including aircraft wheel bearings.

ASTM D1744 - Water Content, Karl Fischer - discontinued use D4377

ASTM D1744 Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent

Water in petroleum products may increase the rate of oxidation and acid formation, lessening the life of the oil. This method, which potentiometrically determines the water content, is considered obsolete by ASTM and has been replaced by ASTM D4377.

Note: This method is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to our clients.

ASTM D1747 - Refractive Index of Viscous Material @ 20°C or 25°C

ASTM D1747 Refractive Index of Viscous Materials

When light passes from air into a transparent liquid, the light bends, often giving the liquid a characteristic appearance. This test determines the refractive index (amount that the light bends entering the sample) of viscous liquids. It is appropriate for samples with no suspended particles at the test temperature, and may be used for both quality control and research applications. One example of its usefulness is in ethylene glycol/water hydraulic fluids, where the proper water level is essential for the fluids to provide optimal protection. Refractive index is a quick and dependable method to determine the quantity of water present in the fluid.  The sample is placed in the prism box of a refractometer and brought to the test temperature. The angle at which light passes through the sample is determined, compared to a known standard and reported as a unitless number. Please specify the desired temperature.

 

ASTM D1748 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 100 hours

ASTM D1748 Rust Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet

This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity.  Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels.  After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time. A pass is reported if the test surface contins no more than three dots of rust, no one of which is larger than 1mm in diameter.  A fail is reported if the test surface contains one or more dots of rust larger tahn 1mm in diameter or if it contains four or more dots of any size. 

A written description of the relative degree of rusting at various exposure times can be provided.  Digital color photos can also be provided (e-mail or snail mail) at additional cost.

 

ASTM D1748 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 192 hours

ASTM D1748 Rust Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet

This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity.  Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels.  After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time.  A pass is reported if the test surface contins no more than three dots of rust, no one of which is larger than 1mm in diameter.  A fail is reported if the test surface contains one or more dots of rust larger tahn 1mm in diameter or if it contains four or more dots of any size.

A written description of the relative degree of rusting at various exposure times can be provided.  Digital color photos can also be provided (e-mail or snail mail) at additional cost.

 

ASTM D1748 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 400 hours

ASTM D1748 Rust Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet

This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity.  Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels.  After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time.  A pass is reported if the test surface contins no more than three dots of rust, no one of which is larger than 1mm in diameter.  A fail is reported if the test surface contains one or more dots of rust larger than 1mm in diameter or if it contains four or more dots of any size.

A written description of the relative degree of rusting at various exposure times can be provided.  Digital color photos can also be provided (e-mail or snail mail) at additional cost.

ASTM D1748 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 900 hours

ASTM D1748 Rust Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet

This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity.  Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels.  After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time. A pass is reported if the test surface contains no more than three dots of rust,  no one of which is larger than 1 mm in idameter.  A fail is reported if the test surface conrtains one or more dots of rust larger than 1mm in diameter or if it contains four or more dots of any size.

A written description of the relative degree of rusting at various exposure times can be provided.  Digital color photos can also be provided (e-mail or snail mail) at additional cost.

ASTM D1748 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 1000 hours

ASTM D1748 Rust Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet

This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity.  Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels.  After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time.  A pass is reported if the test surface contins no more than three dots of rust, no one of which is larger than 1mm in diameter.  A fail is reported if the test surface contains one or more dots of rust larger than 1mm in diameter or if it contains four or more dots of any size. 


A written description of the relative degree of rusting at various exposure times can be provided.  Digital color photos can also be provided (e-mail or snail mail) at additional cost.

 

ASTM D1796 - Water and Sediment

ASTM D1796 Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)

Sediment and water in fuel oils may cause processing problems, accelerate corrosion and clog filters. This method determines the percent (from 0 to 30%) of water and sediment in fuel oils. It may not be appropriate for samples containing alcohols. The sample is placed in a centrifuge tube, diluted with toluene, and spun until a constant volume of water + sediment is obtained. The volume percent is reported.

ASTM D1816 - Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Oils Using VDE Electrodes @ 1mm OR 2mm gap

ASTM D1824 - Brookfield Viscosity (Resin) - need temperature

ASTM D1831 - Roll Stability 2 hrs. between 20°C and 35°C

ASTM D1831 Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease

A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.

ASTM D1831 - Roll Stability 2 hrs. @ 100°C (can only run @ this temp for 2 hrs.)

ASTM D1831 Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease

A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.

ASTM D1831 - Roll Stability 20 hrs. @ Ambient

ASTM D1831 Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease

A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.

ASTM D1831 - Roll Stability 24 hrs. @ 180°F (cannot run above this temp.)

ASTM D1831 Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease

A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.

ASTM D1831 - Roll Stability 50 hrs. @ 180°F (cannot run above this temp.)

ASTM D1831 Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease

A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.

ASTM D1831 - Roll Stability 96 hrs. @ 180°F (cannot run above this temp.)

ASTM D1831 Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease

A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.

ASTM D1876 - Peel Resistance of Adhesives T-Peel Test

ASTM D1881 - Foaming Tendencies of Engine Coolants in Glassware

ASTM D1894 - Sled Test (Static & Kinetic Coef Friction of Plastic Film)

ASTM D1957 - Hydroxyl Number

ASTM D1957 Hydroxyl Value of Fatty Oils and Acids

This test determines hydroxyl number, which gives an indication of the total number of free hydroxyl groups in a sample - a large hydroxyl number indicates a large number of free hydroxyl groups, a small number indicates a small number of free hydroxyl groups. This test is intended for use with castor oil, dehydrated castor oil and castor oil derivatives, fatty alcohols, mono and di-gycerides, hydroxysteric acid and other fatty samples.

As an example of usefulness of this test, consider castor oil. Castor oil is a natural product derived from the castor bean. It is biodegradable, has excellent low temperature viscosity properties, does not react with rubber seals and has a large dielectric constant. Castor oil and its derivatives are therefore attractive for use in electrical capacitor oils, diesel fuels and lubricants - but has one major draw back - it has free hydroxyl groups that tend to react with isocyanates to form varnish, potentially clogging filters, valves and other system components. The hydroxyl number indicates if the castor oil or castor oil derivative is appropriate for the intended application.

The sample is accurately weighed into two flasks. In the first flask, acylating agents are added and the sample is refluxed to allow acylation to take place. The second flask is subjected to the same conditions with no acylation agent added (this determines acid number). Both flasks are titrated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) The hydroxyl number is the mg KOH per gram of acylated sample (flask 1) minus the acid number (flask 2). Reported is the hydroxyl number in mg KOH per gram of sample.

This method is considered obsolete by ASTM.

Note: This test is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to our clients.

ASTM D1976 - Elements in Water by Inductively-Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

ASTM D1982 - Titer Point of Fatty Acids

ASTM D2070 - Thermal Stability of Hydraulic Oils

ASTM D2070 Thermal Stability of Hydraulic Oils

Cincinnati Milacron Thermal Stability - Procedure A This test is intended to measure the thermal stability of hydraulic oils. Copper and steel rods are placed together in the oil which is heated to 135°C for one week. The condition of the metal specimens is reported according to the Cincinnati Milacron color chart, total sludge in mg/100 ml oil, and viscosity change can also be reported.

ASTM D2074 - Amine Value

ASTM D2109 - Non-Volatile Residue

ASTM D2109 Nonvolatile Matter in Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

Halogenated organic solvents are used in metal cleaning products, automotive aerosols and lubricants.  If the solvent contains nonvolatile preservatives or contaminants, they may alter the effectiveness of the end-use product.  This method determines the amount of nonvolatile matter in halogenated organic solvents and their admixtures.

This method has three options:   In Test Method A, part of the sample is placed in an evaporating dish, and an automatic feed system is set up to keep the level constant.  When the sample is near dryness, it is placed in an oven to complete the evaporation. Test Method A reports weight percent or ppm by weight.   In Test Method B, the sample is placed in an evaporating dish and heated to evaporate to dryness.  The parts per million nonvolatile matter by weight is reported.  In Test Method C, the sample is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask and evaporated until a small amount of sample remains.  The sample is transferred to an evaporating dish and evaporation continues at a lower temperature.  The ppm by weight is reported.

  

ASTM D2110 - pH of Water Extracted from Halogenated Organic Solvents

ASTM D2110 - pH of water Extractions of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

Halogenated organic solvents are often prepared with either mildly acidic or mildly basic pH stabilizers to lessen oxidation and degradation. The stabilizers are usually water soluble, and their levels may often be determined by extracting them into water and measuring the pH of the resulting aqueous solution. In new or reclaimed solvents, a pH variance outside the intended range may indicate a quality control problem. In used solvents, a pH variance may indicate a contamination or breakdown of the solvent. This test determines the pH of water extractions of halogenated organic solvents.

In a separatory funnel, distilled water is added to the sample. The mixture is shaken, the layers are allowed to separate and the water layer is removed. The pH of the water layer may be determined either by adding a color indicator and matching the resulting color to a standard chart (Procedure A) or by direct measurement with a pH meter using a glass electrode (Procedure B). For Procedure A, the pH is reported to the nearest 0.25 pH unit. For Procedure B, the pH is reported to the nearest 0.1 pH unit. Please specify Procedure A or Procedure B.

ASTM D2112 - Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test - RPVOT up to 48 hrs - after 48 hrs, add $1.00 per hour

ASTM D2140 - Carbon -Type Composition of Insulating Oils

ASTM D2155 - Autoignition Temperature

ASTM D2155 Autoignition Temperature of Liquid ChemicalsWhen heated, some materials can form vapors that react with atmospheric oxygen to spontaneously combust or autoignite - no ignition source is needed.  The lowest temperature at which this happens is the autoignition temperature (AIT). This test measures AITs up to 600ºC. There is a delay time between the sample reaching the AIT and combustion occurring. This is also determined in this test. A flask is heated to the test temperature. A small quantity of sample is injected into the flask and observed to see if ignition occurs. If it does not, the flask is cleaned and the process is repeated at a higher temperature.

When autoignition is observed, the temperature,  delay time and barometric pressure are reported.

ASTM E659 is a more modern method for determining autoignition temperatures.  It uses a diffiernt apparatus but gives similar results.

ASTM D2161 - Saybolt (SUS) - Viscosity & Calculation

ASTM D2161 Conversion of Kinematic Viscosity to Saybolt Universal Viscosity or to Saybolt Furol Viscosity

Saybolt Universal Viscosity is reported in Saybolt Universal Seconds.  Saybolt Furol Viscosity is reported in Saybolt Furol Seconds.  Kinematic viscosity is reported in centistokes.  All three methods can be used to determine the kinematic viscosity.  This method converts one viscosity unit to another – no laboratory work is involved if the original viscosity is known.

 

ASTM D2194 - Concentration of Formaldehyde Solutions

ASTM D2194 - Concentration of Formaldehyde Solutions

Formaldehyde (CH2O, methanal) is a colorless, water-soluble substance with a strong odor. It is used extensively in organic and polymer synthesis, as a disinfectant and in biological applications. Proper usage often necessitates knowing the level of formaldehyde in starting materials. This test determines the level of formaldehyde, from 36 to 55%, in commercial solutions.

The sample is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask with a sodium sulfite solution and color indicator. The mixture is titrated with a standardized sulfuric acid solution to a colorless endpoint. The blank is accounted for and the percent formaldehyde is reported.

ASTM D2196 - Brookfield Viscosity, Procedure A, B or C - Specify

ASTM D2265 - Dropping Point by Aluminum Block

ASTM D2265 Dropping Point of Lubricating Grease

A sample of grease is heated in the drop point cup until the sample melts or separates and runs out a small hole in the bottom of the cup. This test may indicate the temperature at which a change in state may be anticipated under similar operating conditions.

ASTM D2266 - Four Ball Wear of Grease @ 1 hr.

ASTM D2266 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four Ball Method)
ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its wear preventative characteristics.  Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request.  Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.
In the early 1980s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test.  Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated.  Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.
In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant.  A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls.  The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute.   The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and  examined under a microscope.  The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured.  The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.
When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

ASTM D2266 - Four Ball Wear of Grease @ 2 hrs.

ASTM D2266 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four Ball Method)
ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its wear preventative characteristics.  Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request.  Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.
In the early 1980s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test.  Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated.  Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.
In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant.  A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls.  The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute.   The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and  examined under a microscope.  The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured.  The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.
When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

ASTM D2266 - Four Ball Wear of Grease @ 4 hrs.

ASTM D2266 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its wear preventative characteristics. Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.


In the early 1980s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters. When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D2266 - Four Ball Wear of Grease @ 1 hr. w/Coefficient of Friction Graph

ASTM D2266 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its wear preventative characteristics. Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test.  Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated.  Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant.  A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls.  The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute.   The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and  examined under a microscope.  The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured.  The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

ASTM D2266 - Four Ball Wear of Grease w/Coef. of Friction Graph @ 2 hrs

ASTM D2266 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its wear preventative characteristics. Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test.  Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated.  Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant.  A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls.  The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute.   The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and  examined under a microscope.  The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured.  The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

ASTM D2266 - Four Ball Wear of Grease M-50 Steel Balls

ASTM D2266 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Grease (Four Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its wear preventative characteristics. Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test.  Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated.  Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant.  A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls.  The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute.   The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and  examined under a microscope.  The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured.  The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

ASTM D2270 - Viscosity Index -calculation with 40°C and 100°C, D445 viscosities

ASTM D2270 Practice for Calculating Viscosity Index from Kinematic Viscosity at 40ºC and 100ºC

Oil viscosity (see ASTM D445) typically decreases as temperature increases.  If this decrease is large, the system may not be properly lubricated over the entire operating temperature range.  Viscosity index describes this change – a high viscosity index indicates a smaller viscosity change with temperature increase than a low viscosity index.  This method determines the viscosity index of lubricating oils that conform to the general properties of Newtonian fluids.  It is a calculation applied to the viscosities that have been determined by ASTM D445.

ASTM D2272 - Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test - RPVOT - up to 48 hrs - after 48 hrs add $1.00 per hour run

ASTM D2272 Oxidation Stability of Steam Turbine Oils by Rotating Pressure Vessel (RPVOT)

Steam turbines typically operate continuously, with long periods between servicing. If a steam turbine oil becomes oxidized, it may form varnish and sludge, potentially resulting in costly and unexpected shutdowns. The rate of oxidation normally increases with temperature, entrained air or water, and catalyzing metals such as copper. This test is used to estimate the oxidative stability of new steam turbine oils, and to predict the remaining life of service oils.

The test oil is combined with water and a copper coil in the test cell. The test cell is placed in a pressure chamber, pressurized with oxygen and brought to the test temperature. The test chamber is rotated (to mimic the operation of a turbine) and the pressure is followed. The amount of time it takes for the pressure to drop 175kPa (25.4 psi) is reported. As a special service to our clients, Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories also describes the pressure drop as "inductive", meaning that the pressure dropped rapidly, or "non-inductive" meaning that the pressure dropped gradually (i.e. there was no sharp pressure drop).

 

ASTM D2273 - Trace Sediment Contamination

ASTM D2273 Trace Sediment in Lubricating Oils

Sediments in lubricating fluids may damage system components in aviation systems, hydraulic systems and other mechanical systems, potentially leading to unexpected system failures. This test determines the level of sediment in lubricating oils.

The sample is mixed with solvent and centrifuged for ten minutes. It is then decanted and a second sample plus solvent is added to the tube, well mixed and centrifuged until a constant sediment level is obtained. The trace sediment is reported as the percent sediment by volume.

 

ASTM D2274 - Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil

ASTM D2274 Oxidation Stability of Distillate Fuel Oil

When gas oil, diesel fuel and other middle distillate petroleum oils are stored, they may be exposed to atmospheric oxygen, causing insoluble materials to form, potentially shortening the life of the oil.  The insoluble material may be filterable (suspended in the oil or easily rinsed off with hydrocarbon solvents) or adhering (materials such as gums that cannot be removed by hydrocarbon solvents).  This test measures the amount of both types of insolubles.  It is not intended for fuels containing residual oils and has not been tested on biodiesel fuels. 

Oxygen is bubbled through a heated sample for a specified period of time.  The oil is then filtered to remove filterable solids.  Adhering solids are removed with a non-hydrocarbon solvent; The amounts of filterable, adhering and total insolubles are reported in mg/100 ml oil.  This test normally runs for 16 hours.  Other times are available upon request.

ASTM D2276 - Particulate Contamination

ASTM D2369 - Volatile Content of Coatings

ASTM D2386 - Freezing Point of Aviation Fuel

ASTM D2386 – Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels

Aviation fuel is typically a mixture of hydrocarbons. When aircrafts are exposed to cold temperatures, either on the ground or in flight, some of these hydrocarbons may begin to crystallize (freeze), potentially clogging fuel filters, limiting fuel flow and engine efficiency. The freezing point, which is determined in this test, is the lowest temperature at which the fuel remains free of hydrocarbon crystals.

The sample is placed in a sample tube, immersed in a cold bath and allowed to cool while being observed and manually stirred. When crystals begin to form, the sample is gradually warmed and the temperature at which the crystals disappear is reported as the freezing point.

ASTM D2416 - Carbon Residue, Conradson, of Petroleum Products

ASTM D2440 - Oxidation Stability of Mineral Insulating Oil @ 72 hrs.

ASTM D2440 Oxidation Stability of Mineral Insulating Oils

Transformer oils dissipate heat and provide electrical insulation to protect transformer components.  Oxidation of these oils may produce sludge and acid products, potentially decreasing the service life of the oil and increasing the chance of expensive equipment failure.  This test is intended to predict how well new transformer oils will resist oxidation. 

A copper catalyst is added to the sample, the mixture is heated and oxygen is bubbled through for a specified period of time.  The oil is then filtered and the sludge is dried and weighed.  The neutralization number of the filtered oil is determined.  The report lists the weight percent of recovered sludge and the neutralization value in mg KOH /g oil.  This test normally runs for 72 and/or 164 hours.  Other times are available by request..

ASTM D2440 - Oxidation Stability of Mineral Insulating Oils @ 164 hrs.

ASTM D2440 Oxidation Stability of Mineral Insulating Oils

Transformer oils dissipate heat and provide electrical insulation to protect transformer components.  Oxidation of these oils may produce sludge and acid products, potentially decreasing the service life of the oil and increasing the chance of expensive equipment failure.  This test is intended to predict how well new transformer oils will resist oxidation. 

A copper catalyst is added to the sample, the mixture is heated and oxygen is bubbled through for a specified period of time.  The oil is then filtered and the sludge is dried and weighed.  The neutralization number of the filtered oil is determined.  The report lists the weight percent of recovered sludge and the neutralization value in mg KOH /g oil.  This test normally runs for 72 and/or 164 hours.  Other times are available by request..

ASTM D2500 - Cloud Point of Transparent Fluids

ASTM D2500 Cloud Point

This test method is applicable only to products which are transparent when viewed through 40 mm of sample. The sample is cooled in a pour point tube and the temperature at which cloud formation occurs is noted. The temperature at which wax formation or crystallization occurs is an indicator of useful low temperature limits in some cases.

ASTM D2502 - Molecular Weight from Viscosity - Calculation with 100°F and 210°F viscosities.

ASTM D2509 - Timken Load Carrying Test of Grease (cost per load) specify starting load

ASTM D2510 - Fluid Resistance/Film Adhesion per Fluid

ASTM D2510 Adhesion of Solid Film Lubricants

Solid film lubricants are attractive for use on difficult- to-access gears, fasteners, bearings and CV joints because they do not require frequent re-lubrication,. In cases where fluids may come in contact with the solid film-lubricated metal, the lubricant must continue to adhere, or it may become ineffective and put the machinery at risk of failure. This test determines the ability of solid film lubricants to adhere to metal surfaces in the presence of water and other fluids.

Test panels are cleaned, coated with the dry film lubricant and cured. The panels are half immersed in the test fluid at the test temperature for the test time and then removed and rinsed. The coating adherence is checked by placing masking tape on the panel covering areas above and below the immersion line, as well as the interface, and removing the tape abruptly. The panel is visually inspected. If no lubricant is removed, the panel is reported as a pass, if lubricant is removed, it is reported as a fail. Please specify the test temperature.

 

ASTM D2511 - Thermal Shock Sensitivity (Dry Film Lubricant)

ASTM D2511 Thermal Shock Sensitivity of Solid Film Lubricants

Machines operating in cold environments may be exposed to very low temperatures while at rest, and very high temperatures while in service. Effectively lubricating these machines may be difficult due to changes in grease or oil viscosity with temperature. Solid film lubricants are designed to durably adhere to metal surfaces under extreme temperature conditions and may be a good alternative to traditional lubricants. This test determines the adhesion of solid film lubricants to metal substrates during rapid and extreme temperature changes.

Test panels are cleaned, coated with the test solid film lubricant and cured. They are heated to the initial hot test temperature (260ºC) for three hours, removed and immediately placed at the cold temperature (-54ºC) for three hours. The panels are then observed. Any changes in appearance, including blistering, flaking, cracking or film softening are reported.

ASTM D2532 - Viscosity, Kinematic, Storage 72 hrs. (0°F to -65°F) - need temp.

ASTM D2595 - Evaporation Loss @ 6 1/2 hours - need temperature

ASTM D2595 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils

Although not yet written as an oil test method, this apparatus eliminates the limitations of ASTM D972 by employing an aluminum block for heating the test cell and an air preheater so that the sample is subject to air at the same temperature as the test temperature.

ASTM D2595 - Evaporation Loss @ 22 hours - need temperature

ASTM D2595 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils

Although not yet written as an oil test method, this apparatus eliminates the limitations of ASTM D972 by employing an aluminum block for heating the test cell and an air preheater so that the sample is subject to air at the same temperature as the test temperature.

ASTM D2595 - Evaporation Loss @ 72 hours - need temperature

ASTM D2595 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils

Although not yet written as an oil test method, this apparatus eliminates the limitations of ASTM D972 by employing an aluminum block for heating the test cell and an air preheater so that the sample is subject to air at the same temperature as the test temperature.

ASTM D2595 - Evaporation Loss @ 500 hours - need temperature

ASTM D2595 Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils

Although not yet written as an oil test method, this apparatus eliminates the limitations of ASTM D972 by employing an aluminum block for heating the test cell and an air preheater so that the sample is subject to air at the same temperature as the test temperature.

ASTM D2596 - Load Wear Index of Grease - Four Ball EP (Extreme Pressure)

ASTM D2596 Measurement of Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Grease

The extreme pressure properties, Load Carrying Capacity, of greases uses the Shell 4-Ball Extreme Pressure Test Machine. A rotating upper ball is loaded against three stationary lower balls. The initial loads are low and exhibit elastohydrodynamic properties. As loads increase beyond E.H.P., the lubricant passes through the high pressure boundary film region. At the highest load the lubricant can stand the boundary film is lost and welding occurs.

This test is very good at comparing the extreme pressure and boundary lubrication properties of comparative samples or competitive types of formulations. The Load Wear Index Value, Last Non Seizure, Last Seizure and Weld Load are reported.

ASTM D2596 - Load Wear Index of Grease - Weld Load ONLY

ASTM D2596 Measurement of Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Grease

The extreme pressure properties, Load Carrying Capacity, of greases uses the Shell 4-Ball Extreme Pressure Test Machine. A rotating upper ball is loaded against three stationary lower balls. The initial loads are low and exhibit elastohydrodynamic properties. As loads increase beyond E.H.P., the lubricant passes through the high pressure boundary film region. At the highest load the lubricant can stand the boundary film is lost and welding occurs.

This test is very good at comparing the extreme pressure and boundary lubrication properties of comparative samples or competitive types of formulations. The Load Wear Index Value, Last Non Seizure, Last Seizure and Weld Load are reported.

ASTM D2603 - Sonic Shear Stability -choose Reference Fluid A or B

ASTM D2603 - Sonic Shear Stability of Polymer-Containing Oils

Hydraulic fluids, transmission fluids, tractor fluids and other power transmission fluids experience shearing during normal operations, which may change the viscosity and decrease efficiency. Polymers are added to improve the viscosity index of these fluids. This test determines viscosity changes in polymer-containing fluids exposed to sonic shearing vibrations.

The viscosity of the sample is determined. The sample is then placed in the test beaker, brought to the test temperature and irradiated using a sonic horn for the time specified in the test. The resulting viscosity of the fluid is determined. The percent change in viscosity is reported.

ASTM D2603 - Sonic Shear Stability with 40°C and 100°C Viscosities

ASTM D2603 - Sonic Shear Stability of Polymer-Containing Oils

Hydraulic fluids, transmission fluids, tractor fluids and other power transmission fluids experience shearing during normal operations, which may change the viscosity and decrease efficiency. Polymers are added to improve the viscosity index of these fluids. This test determines viscosity changes in polymer-containing fluids exposed to sonic shearing vibrations.

The viscosity of the sample is determined. The sample is then placed in the test beaker, brought to the test temperature and irradiated using a sonic horn for the time specified in the test. The resulting viscosity of the fluid is determined. The percent change in viscosity is reported.

ASTM D2619 - Hydrolytic Stability

ASTM D2619 Hydrolytic Stability of Hydraulic Fluids (Beverage Bottle Method)

Fluids which are unstable to water under conditions of the test form corrosive acidic and insoluble contaminants. 75 g of fluid, 25 g of water, and a polished copper strip are sealed in a bottle then placed in a 200°F (93°C) oven and rotated end for end at 5 rpm for 48 hrs. Reported values are Acid Number Change, Total Acidity of Water, Weight Change and Appearance of Copper Strip, and can also include Total Sediment Weight.

ASTM D2622 - Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF)

ASTM D2624 - Electrical Conductivity of Aviation Distillate Fuels

ASTM D2625A - Falex Pin & V Block Test Procedure A Endurance Life - per run

ASTM D2625 - Endurance (Wear) Life and Load-Wear Carrying Capacity of Solid Film Lubricants (Falex Pin and Vee Method)

Bonded solid film lubricants protect metal surfaces from wear during normal and extreme pressure operations. These lubricants are exceptionally attractive for use in inaccessible locations, and where cleanliness is a concern. This test uses a Falex Pin and Vee Block Test Machine to evaluate the solid film's (1) ability to protect metal from wear (Procedure A), or (2) load-carrying capacity (Procedure B).

In Procedure A, the vee blocks and pins are coated and cured with the test solid film lubricant, placed in the machine and aligned. The machine is run for a break in period and load is slowly added until the test conditions are reached. A steady state torque value is obtained. The machine is then run and the time it takes for either a torque increase of 10 in-lbf or a pin breakage is recorded and reported.

In Procedure B, the vee blocks and pins are likewise coated and cured with the test solid film lubricant, the machine is set up as above and the steady state torque is determined. The load is increased in one minute increments until the pin breaks or the torque rises by 10 in-lbf (1.13N m). Reported is the last load that was sustained for one minute.

ASTM D2625B - Falex Pin & V Block Test Procedure B Load Carrying Capacity

ASTM D2625 - Endurance (Wear) Life and Load-Wear Carrying Capacity of Solid Film Lubricants (Falex Pin and Vee Method)

Bonded solid film lubricants protect metal surfaces from wear during normal and extreme pressure operations. These lubricants are exceptionally attractive for use in inaccessible locations, and where cleanliness is a concern. This test uses a Falex Pin and Vee Block Test Machine to evaluate the solid film's (1) ability to protect metal from wear (Procedure A), or (2) load-carrying capacity (Procedure B).

In Procedure A, the vee blocks and pins are coated and cured with the test solid film lubricant, placed in the machine and aligned. The machine is run for a break in period and load is slowly added until the test conditions are reached. A steady state torque value is obtained. The machine is then run and the time it takes for either a torque increase of 10 in-lbf or a pin breakage is recorded and reported.

In Procedure B, the vee blocks and pins are likewise coated and cured with the test solid film lubricant, the machine is set up as above and the steady state torque is determined. The load is increased in one minute increments until the pin breaks or the torque rises by 10 in-lbf (1.13N m). Reported is the last load that was sustained for one minute.

ASTM D2649 - Corrosion of Solid Film Lubricants

ASTM D2649 Corrosion Characteristics of Solid Film Lubricants

Aluminum is lightweight, strong, durable and corrosion resistant, making it attractive for use in construction, transportation and many other applications. This test determines the corrosion resistance of aluminum panels coated with solid film lubricants. It is intended to predict problems that may occur when aluminum is subjected to high humidity environments.

Two aluminum panels are compared in this test. The first panel is treated and cured with the test solid film lubricant. The second is left untreated. The two panels are placed together in the test assembly, a load is applied, and the assembly is heated and placed in a constant humidity chamber for the test time. The assembly is removed, disassembled and visually examined. Any pitting, etching or formation of white deposits is reported.

ASTM D2670 - Falex Pin & V Block Tooth Wear Test

ASTM D2711 - Demulsibility Characteristics Procedure A or B

ASTM D2711 Demulsibility Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

This test measures the ability of oil and water to separate. Procedure A is for oils which do not contain extreme pressure (EP) additives uses 405 ml of oil and 45 ml of water with a stirrer speed of 4500 rpm.

Procedure B is for oils which contain EP additives uses 360 ml of oil and 90 ml of water with a stirrer speed of 2500 rpm.

In both procedures the oil and water are stirred for 5 minutes at 82°C, followed by 5 hours of settling after which oil in water, free water, and emulsion are determined and reported in ml.

This method is intended for testing medium to high velocity oils.  ASTM D1401 is a completely different method to measure 'water separatibility' Mixing is less vigorous and oils of various viscosities and types can be tested.

ASTM D2714 - Block on Ring Friction & Wear Test - per run

ASTM D2782 - Timken Load Carrying Test of Oil (cost per load) - specify load

ASTM D2783 - Load Wear Index of Oil - Four Ball EP (Extreme Pressure)

ASTM D2783 Measurement of Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Four Ball Method)

Three 1/2 inch 52100 steel balls are locked into a pot containing the fluid which is forced against a fourth rotating ball (1800 rpm) at increasing loads and run for 10 seconds.  The wear scars on the stationary balls are measured and the load is increased until lubrication breaks down completely causing the balls to weld together (Weld Load). 

By mathematical treatment of the scar sizes at the increasing loads an indexing value which characterizes the load carrying capacity of the fluid is obtained and reported as the Load Wear Index (LWI) along with the Weld Load.  Most fluids exhibit a load at which metal to metal contact is minimal and the amount of wear produced on the basis of scar diameter is no more than 5% greater than the impression diameter (the plastic deformation of the balls under point contact load without turning the machine on). This is termed as the 'Last Non-Seizure Load' Greater loads which are termed 'Seizure load' typically produce much larger scars with scoring due to heavy metal to metal contact.

The Last Non-Seizure Load is sometimes of interest for comparative purposes as well as an indicator of the upper limits of transition from elastohydrodynamic to boundary modes of lubrication in terms of the test conditions.

If desired, the Last Non Seizure Load and scar size can be reported as well as the Last Seizure Load and scar (Load just prior to the Weld Load).

ASTM D2783 - Load Wear Index Of Oil - Weld Load ONLY

ASTM D2783 Measurement of Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Four Ball Method)

Three 1/2 inch 52100 steel balls are locked into a pot containing the fluid which is forced against a fourth rotating ball (1800 rpm) at increasing loads and run for 10 seconds.  The wear scars on the stationary balls are measured and the load is increased until lubrication breaks down completely causing the balls to weld together (Weld Load). 

By mathematical treatment of the scar sizes at the increasing loads an indexing value which characterizes the load carrying capacity of the fluid is obtained and reported as the Load Wear Index (LWI) along with the Weld Load.  Most fluids exhibit a load at which metal to metal contact is minimal and the amount of wear produced on the basis of scar diameter is no more than 5% greater than the impression diameter (the plastic deformation of the balls under point contact load without turning the machine on). This is termed as the 'Last Non-Siezure Load' Greater loads which are termed 'Seizure load' typically produce much larger scars with scoring due to heavy metal to metal contact.

The Last Non-Siezure Load is sometimes of interest for comparative purposes as well as an indicator of the upper limits of transition from elastohydrodynamic to boundary modes of lubrication in terms of the test conditions.

If desired, the Last Non Seizure Load and scar size can be reported as well as the Last Seizure Load and scar (Load just prior to the Weld Load).

ASTM D2803 - Filiform Corrosion Resistance of Organic Coatings on Metal

ASTM D2834 - Non-Volatile Matter of Emulsions

ASTM D2878 - Vapor Pressure, Apparent

ASTM D2878 Estimating Apparent Vapor Pressures and Molecular Weights of Lubricating Oils

The method utilizes evaporation loss data obtained from ASTM D972 and calculations based upon a standard pure substance (m-terphenyl) to obtain apparent molecular weight and vapor pressure.  Test time and temperature are selected to give an evaporation of 5.0% ± 1%.  This procedure minimizes the effect of low concentrations of low molecular weight material or volatile impurities.  The molecular weight is required for the calculations and can be obtained with an evaporation run at 400°F, but only if 5% can be evaporated in a reasonable length of time.  Alternately, molecular weight obtained from ASTM D2503 or equivalent can be used and may be preferable if oxidation at 400°F is of concern.

ASTM D2878 - Molecular Weight (by evaporation & vapor pressure)

ASTM D2878 Estimating Apparent Vapor Pressures and Molecular Weights of Lubricating Oils

The method utilizes evaporation loss data obtained from ASTM D972 and calculations based upon a standard pure substance (m-terphenyl) to obtain apparent molecular weight and vapor pressure.  Test time and temperature are selected to give an evaporation of 5.0% ± 1%.  This procedure minimizes the effect of low concentrations of low molecular weight material or volatile impurities.  The molecular weight is required for the calculations and can be obtained with an evaporation run at 400°F, but only if 5% can be evaporated in a reasonable length of time.  Alternately, molecular weight obtained from ASTM D2503 or equivalent can be used and may be preferable if oxidation at 400°F is of concern.

ASTM D2879 - Vapor Pressure by Isotenoscope - Single temperature - for each additional temperature add $36.00

ASTM D2879 Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope

Vapor pressure, which gives an indication of a mixture's evaporation rate, has many important applications. For example, high vacuum oils require very low vapor pressures to prevent fouling of the vacuum system; hydraulic fluids require low vapor pressures to lessen the chance of cavitation; lubricating oils require low vapor pressures to lessen changes in viscosity and other properties during use. If vapor pressure is determined at a series of temperatures and the data is graphed (log vapor pressure vs. ºK-1), a deviation from linearity may indicate sample decomposition. This test determines vapor pressures of liquids.

The test sample is pipetted into the isoteniscope, heated to remove trapped gases, manipulated as per the method to create a pure vapor bubble and brought to the test temperature. The vapor pressure is determined and reported in mm Hg (torr). If a multi-temperature determination is requested, the vapor pressure is reported at the requested temperatures and graphed to allow analysis of the data.

ASTM D2879 - Vapor Pressure by Isoteniscope - Multi-Point Graph

ASTM D2879 Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope

Vapor pressure, which gives an indication of a mixture's evaporation rate, has many important applications. For example, high vacuum oils require very low vapor pressures to prevent fouling of the vacuum system; hydraulic fluids require low vapor pressures to lessen the chance of cavitation; lubricating oils require low vapor pressures to lessen changes in viscosity and other properties during use. If vapor pressure is determined at a series of temperatures and the data is graphed (log vapor pressure vs. ºK-1), a deviation from linearity may indicate sample decomposition. This test determines vapor pressures of liquids.

The test sample is pipetted into the isoteniscope, heated to remove trapped gases, manipulated as per the method to create a pure vapor bubble and brought to the test temperature. The vapor pressure is determined and reported in mm Hg (torr). If a multi-temperature determination is requested, the vapor pressure is reported at the requested temperatures and graphed to allow analysis of the data.

ASTM D2882* - Vickers Vane Wear Test (withdrawn in 2002)

ASTM D2893 - Oxidation Stability of EP (Extreme Pressure) Gear Oils Procedure A(95°C) or B(121°C)

ASTM D2896 - Base Number - Perchloric Acid Method

ASTM D2896 Base Number in Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration

Lubricants often contain basic additives, which may be quantified by base numbers. High base numbers indicate high levels of basic components, low base numbers indicate low levels of basic components. A decrease in base number during oil usage may indicate additive depletion. This test determines the total (strong + weak) base number. In new oil, it may be used as a quality control tool. In used oil it may indicate the remaining useful life.

The sample is weighed, titration solvent is added and the mixture is potentiometrically titrated with perchloric acid. The data is graphed, inflection points are determined, the blank is corrected for and the base number is determined. In cases where no inflection point can be determined, excessive potassium hydroxide is added, and the sample is back titrated with sodium acetate to determine the base number. The base number is reported in milligrams potassium hydroxide per gram of sample.

Use this test for new oils, or for oils where both strong and weak base numbers are of interest. For used oil consider ASTM D4739 Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration

ASTM D2942 - Total Acid of Halogenated Organic Solvents

ASTM D2942 Total Acid Acceptance of Halogenated Organic Solvents (Nonreflux Methods)

During storage and use halogenated solvents may oxidize and produce acids which may corrode storage containers and processing equipment. To lessen acidification, stabilizers - typically epoxides or amines - are added to the solvents to neutralize these acids as they are created. Over time the stabilizers may become depleted. This method determines the amount of acid a stabilized halogenated solvent can absorb before becoming acidic. It may be used as a quality control tool, to determine specification adherence, or to monitor stabilizer levels over the life of the solvent.

In an Erlenmeyer flask, the sample, isopropanol and titration solvent containing excess acid are combined and given ten minutes to react. A color-changing indicator is added and the mixture is back-titrated with sodium hydroxide. The blank is corrected for and the total acid acceptance as equivalent sodium hydroxide is reported as a weight percent.

ASTM D2981 - Oscillating Block on Ring LFW-1

ASTM D2983 - Viscosity, Brookfield - need temperature

ASTM D2989 - Acidity-Alkalinity of Halogenated Solvents/Mixtures

ASTM D2989 Acidity -Alkalinity of Halogenated Organic Solvents

Halogenated organic liquids are used in many industrial processes as solvents and/or reactants. To stabilize them during transport and storage  weak acids are added as preservatives, which may result in a slightly acidic solvent. Over time the levels of these preservatives may decrease and no longer protect the solvent from degradation. This test determines the acidity or basicity of halogenated solvents. It may be used both as a quality control tool for new solvents and to determine the condition of solvents in-service. There are three options for this test. Procedures A and B may be used when water-soluble pH materials are to be analyzed, procedure C analyzes the material without a water extraction.

Procedure A and Procedure B both begin with adding water to the solvent, shaking the mixture well, removing the aqueous layer and titrating it with sodium hydroxide. In Procedure A the titration is monitored with a pH meter until a neutral pH is achieved. In Procedure B, a color (bromothymol blue) endpoint is achieved. For Procedure C, the sample is titrated to a bromothymol blue endpoint with no water extraction. Please select procedure A, B or C when requesting this test.

ASTM D3065 - Flammability of Aerosol - Flame Projection

ASTM D3065 Flammability of Aerosol Products

The flammability of an aerosol may indicate safety where an open flame is present and is often required for package labeling.   This test determines aerosol flammability using two methods:   Flame Projection Test and Closed Drum Test.  The flame projection test indicates the flammability of an aerosol when positioned near an open flame.  The closed drum test indicates the likelihood of  the aerosol material in a confined space to accumulate sufficiently to become ignitable. Former versions of this method also included a Tag Open Cup Flash Point, which is now covered in ASTM D1310.

For the flame projection test, the sample is sprayed a standard distance from a flame source.  The distance that the ignited spray travels from the sample is measured and reported.  For the Closed Drum Test a flame acts as the ignition source inside a horizontal 55 gallon drum.  The aerosol is sprayed into the drum until the vapors ignite, until the aerosol can is expended, or for 60 seconds, whichever happens first.  The time it takes for the vapors to ignite is reported.  

 

ASTM D3065 - Flammability of Aerosol-Tag Open Cup Flash - use ASTM D1310

ASTM D3065 Flammability of Aerosol Products - Tag Open Cup

ASTM D3065 formerly included Tag Open Cup Flash Points.  This method is now covered by ASTM D1310.

ASTM D3065 - Flammability of Aerosol - Closed Drum Test

ASTM D3065 Flammability of Aerosol Products

The flammability of an aerosol may indicate safety where an open flame is present and is often required for package labeling.   This test determines aerosol flammability using two methods:   Flame Projection Test and Closed Drum Test.  The flame projection test indicates the flammability of an aerosol when positioned near an open flame.  The closed drum test indicates the likelihood of  the aerosol material in a confined space to accumulate sufficiently to become ignitable. Former versions of this method also included a Tag Open Cup Flash Point, which is now covered in ASTM D1310.

For the flame projection test, the sample is sprayed a standard distance from a flame source.  The distance that the ignited spray travels from the sample is measured and reported.  For the Closed Drum Test a flame acts as the ignition source inside a horizontal 55 gallon drum.  The aerosol is sprayed into the drum until the vapors ignite, until the aerosol can is expended, or for 60 seconds, whichever happens first.  The time it takes for the vapors to ignite is reported.  

ASTM D3120* - Sulfur by Microcoulometry

ASTM D3232 - Viscosity of Grease @ High Temperature

ASTM D3233 - Falex Pin & V Block Procedure A or B

ASTM D3233 Measurement of Extreme Pressure Properties of Fluid Lubricants (Falex Pin and Vee Block Methods)

This test measures the load carrying ability of an oil.  The tribological aspects are low speed, line contact, steel on steel (this can be altered), sliding motion.  A 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) diameter test journal or pin is rotated at 290 rpm between two Vee Blocks immersed in the oil preheated to 120°F (51.7°C).

Procedure A employs a constant increase in load applied by an automatic ratchet until failure as indicated by seizure of the test coupon or rapid loss of load caused by excessive wear. 

Procedure B employs load increments of 250 lbs with running for 1 minute at each increment until failure. 

The standard test pin is AISI 3135 Steel, HRB 87 and the standard Vee Blocks are AISI C-1137 Steel, HRC 20 to 24. 

Test coupons of different metals and alloys are available at additional expense.

ASTM D3238 - Carbon Distribution including D2502 molecular wt. by viscosity

ASTM D3238 Calculation of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils by the n-DM Method

Carbon distribution and ring content data are used in characterization of oils in the refining-manufacturing process and can also correlate to critical performance properties.  Refractive Index, Density and Molecular Weight (n-DM) are used to calculate the following values:

% CA Percentage of Aromatic Carbon 
% CN Percentage of Naphthenic Carbon 
% Cp Percentage of paraffinic Carbon 
RA Average Number of aromatic rings per Molecule 
RN Average Number of naphthene rings per Molecule
RT Average Number of rings per Molecule 

The mass % Sulfur must be determined in order to calculate values for RT and RN. The n-DM and Sulfur content are determined by the following:

Refractive Index (n)  ASTM D1218 
Density at 20°C (d)  ASTM D1481
Average Molecular Weight (M) ASTM D2502
Sulfur Content (mass %) ASTM D1552 or D2622 

Applicability of the method is limited to the following: In terms of carbon distribution - up to 75% carbon atoms in ring form; % aromatic less than or equal to 1.5 times the % naphthenic rings.
In terms of ring content - up to four rings per molecule with not more than half of them aromatic.

ASTM D3238 - Carbon Distribution including PLTL-85 molecular wt. by boiling point

ASTM D3238 Calculation of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils by the n-DM Method

Carbon distribution and ring content data are used in characterization of oils in the refining-manufacturing process and can also correlate to critical performance properties.  Refractive Index, Density and Molecular Weight (n-DM) are used to calculate the following values:

% CA Percentage of Aromatic Carbon 
% CN Percentage of Naphthenic Carbon 
% Cp Percentage of paraffinic Carbon 
RA Average Number of aromatic rings per Molecule 
RN Average Number of naphthene rings per Molecule
RT Average Number of rings per Molecule 


The mass % Sulfur must be determined in order to calculate values for RT and RN.

The n-DM and Sulfur content are determined by the following:

Refractive Index (n)  ASTM D1218 
Density at 20°C (d)  ASTM D1481
Average Molecular Weight (M) ASTM D2502
Sulfur Content (mass %) ASTM  D2622 


Applicability of the method is limited to the following:
In terms of carbon distribution - up to 75% carbon atoms in ring form; % aromatic less than or equal to 1.5 times the % naphthenic rings.
In terms of ring content - up to four rings per molecule with not more than half of them aromatic.

 

ASTM D3242 - Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel

ASTM D3242 Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel

Low levels of acidity in aviation turbine fuels, such as that remaining from refining, may damage the metals in turbine systems. This test determines low levels of acidity (from 0.000 to 0.100 mg KOH per gram of sample) in aviation turbine fuels.

The sample is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask, titration solvent and indicator are added, and nitrogen is bubbled through the solution. The mixture is titrated with potassium hydroxide to a color-changing endpoint. The blank is corrected for and the acid number is reported in mg KOH per gram or sample.

ASTM D3279 - Asphaltene Content & Heptane Insolubles

ASTM D3336 - High Temperature Bearing Performance Set Up Fee. (Running time additional at $1/hour).

ASTM D3336 Life of Lubricating Greases in Ball Bearings at Elevated Temperatures

The test evaluates the endurance life of greases in ball bearings at high speeds and high temperatures.  An SAE No. 204 Bearing in rotated at 10,000 rpm at test temperatures of 250°F to 400°F depending on the grease type.  Navy type spindles (Pope Machinery Corp.) have a thrust load of 5 pounds and a radial load of 5 pounds applied to the bearing.  The test cycle is closed 20 hours on and 4 hours off for the test temperature above 300°F and 22 1/2 hours on and 2 1/2 hours off for the test 300°F and below.

The test result is the number of cumulative hours the bearing will run without exceeding the motor over-load set point, torque overload set point, or over temperature limit.

ASTM D3359 - Dry Film Adhesion by Tape

ASTM D3401 - Moisture Content by KFR: Amperometric or Coulometric

ASTM D3427 - Air Release Properties, 25°C, 50°C or 75°C - choose temp

ASTM D3427 Air Release Properties

In hydraulic fluids, engine oils and other lubricating oils prone to mechanical agitation, tiny air bubbles may become entrained during use. This may decrease the fluid’s viscosity, bulk modulus and thermal conductivity and increase its cavitation, compressibility and rate of oxidation, potentially lessening its effectiveness and putting components at an increased risk of thermal, chemical and mechanical damage. Once air becomes entrained, it may dissipate out of the fluid. The more rapidly the air dissipates, the quicker the fluids properties will return to normal. This test measures the time it takes for a fluid to release entrained air at 25°C, 50°C or 75°C.

The sample is heated to the test temperature and the density is determined. Using a specialized apparatus, compressed air is bubbled through the oil for the test time. The time it takes for the sample to return to within 0.2% of the initial density is determined and reported in minutes.

ASTM D3430 - Clarity and Yellowness by Colorimeter

ASTM D3430 Clarity and Yellowness of Liquid Water Based Clear Floor Polishes

Water based lubricants such as those used in metal working and drilling fluids will often have a characteristic color and clarity.   Any change may indicate the presence of contaminants or degradation of the oil.  This test determines the color of water-based mixtures. 

Using a colorimeter, the absorbance of the sample is read at 500nm to determine the turbidity of the sample, and at 400nm to determine the uncorrected yellowness of the sample.  The values are corrected using a calibration graph and the corrected absorbance values are reported.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories: Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs offers several types of tests to determine the color of lubricating fluids. When differentiating between shades in clear pale yellow solutions, consider the APHA (platinum-cobalt) scale (ASTM D1209, ASTM D4890 or ISO 2211).  When differentiating between shades ranging from pale to dark yellow, including green-yellows, red-yellows or murky mixtures consider the Gardner Scale (ASTM D4890) or colorimeter values (ASTM D3430).  When differentiating between colors ranging from deep red to pale yellow, consider the ASTM Color Scale (ASTM D1500). 

ASTM D3443 - Chloride in T.C.T.F. Ethane

ASTM D3443 Chlorine in Trichlorofluorethane

Trichlorofluoroethane is a non-toxic and inflammable cooling agent used in air conditioners, refrigerators and other cooling applications.  If residual chloride ions are present, they may accelerate the corrosion of metals in the cooling system.  This method determines the amount of ionizable chloride in trichlorofluoroethane and other halocarbons. 

The sample is placed into a separatory funnel, water is added and the mixture shaken.  The water layer is removed and titrated with mercuric acetate to a colorimetric endpoint.  The parts per million chloride is reported.

         

ASTM D3520 - Quenching Time of Heat Treating Fluids

ASTM D3520 Quenching Time of Heat-Treating Fluids (Magnetic Quenchometer Method)

Steel is used in numerous applications because it is hard and strong. For steel to achieve these properties, it must be heated to a high temperature and cooled at the appropriate rate - the cooling rate helps determine the hardness characteristics of the final product. To control the cooling rate, the hot fabricated metal is placed in a quenching fluid and allowed to cool. This test determines the cooling rate provided by the sample quenching fluid. It uses a Magnetic Quenchometer with a nickel ball which becomes magnetic below a certain temperature (354ºC - its Curie Point).

The sample quenching fluid is placed in a stainless steel beaker in the quenchometer. A nickel ball is heated in a furnace to 885ºC, and dropped into the sample. The ball entering the fluid triggers a timer to start, and when the ball becomes magnetic, it turns the timer off. The time that elapses between the ball entering the fluid, and the oil reaching 354ºC, is reported as the quench time.

This method is considered obsolete by ASTM.

Note: This test is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to our clients.

ASTM D3524 - Diesel Fuel Dilution by GC (Gas Chromatography) Analysis

ASTM D3524 Diesel Fuel Diluent in Used Diesel Engine Oils by Gas Chromatography

During normal engine operation, small amounts diesel fuel may leak through engine seals and mix with engine oil. This may increase with engine wear. If excessive amounts of fuel mix with the oil, the performance of the engine may be compromised. This test determines the amount of diesel fuel in used engine lubricating oil. It is intended for SAE 30 oil only.

A known quantity of n-decane is added to the sample, and the mixture is injected into a GC to achieve a separation as per the method. Detection is by flame ionization. The mass percent of diesel fuel is calculated by comparing the diesel fuel peak with the n-decane peak (the internal standard) using a calibration curve. Reported is mass percent of diesel fuel.

ASTM D3525 - Gasoline Dilution by GC (Gas Chromatography) Analysis

ASTM D3525 Gasoline Diluent in Used Gasoline Engine Oils by Gas Chromatography

During normal operation of gasoline engines, some fuel may leak past engine seals and mix with engine oil. The rate of leakage may increase with engine wear. If excessive amounts of gasoline mix with the engine oil, the performance of the engine may decrease. This method determines the quantity of gasoline in service engine oils.

A known quantity of n-tetradecane is added to the sample, and the mixture is injected into a GC to achieve the separation as per the method. Detection is by flame ionization. The mass percent of gasoline is calculated by comparing the gasoline peak with the n-tetradecane (the internal standard) peak using a calibration curve. The best accuracy is obtained by submitting a new oil to be used as a baseline. Reported is mass percent of gasoline.

ASTM D3527 - Life Performance of Wheel Bearing Grease to 120 hrs. - over 120 hrs add $1.00 per hr.

ASTM D3527 Life Performance of Automobile Wheel Bearing Grease

Roller bearings in automobiles, agricultural and mining equipment may be exposed to high loads and high speeds during normal operation. During braking, they may also be exposed to high temperatures. The grease in these bearings needs to resist thermal and mechanical degradation under  demanding conditions for long periods of time and long distances. This test predicts the relative life of roller bearing grease using a high load and high temperature.

The roller bearing is packed with the sample grease, a load is applied and the system is brought to the test temperature. The bearing is rotated for an induction time to obtain a steady state running torque value. The bearing is put through 20 hours running/4 hours resting cycles until the torque reaches a cut-off value calculated from the steady state running torque. The hours to failure are reported.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

ASTM D3336 Life of Lubricating Grease in Ball Bearings at Elevated Temperatures (which uses a lighter load, higher speed and ball bearings.) ASTM D4290 Leakage Tendencies of Automotive Wheel Bearing Grease Under Accelerated Conditions (which uses the same apparatus as this test, but runs for only one cycle to determine the amount of grease that leaks from the system.)

ASTM D3634 - Trace Chloride Ion in Engine Coolants

ASTM D3634 Trace Chloride Ion in Engine Coolants

Many engine coolants contain chlorinated compounds.  The presence of residual chloride ions may accelerate corrosion in the coolant system.  This test determines low levels of chloride ions in coolants that also contain mercaptans – a common additive used to inhibit corrosion.  

The sample is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask and diluted with water. Sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide are added, the mixture is refluxed, acetic acid is added and the mixture is titrated with silver nitrate.  The ppm of chloride in the coolant is reported.

 

ASTM D3703 - Peroxide Number of Aviation Fuels

ASTM D3703 - Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

Fuel systems often have elastomer-containing components such as hoses and o-rings, which may be weakened if hydroperoxides are present in the fuel, potentially leading to leaks and decreased system efficiency. Hydroperoxides may also accelerate fuel breakdown. This test determines the hydroperoxide number of fuels, including gasolines, diesel fuels and aviation turbine fuels.

The sample is weighed into the flask. Solvent, acetic acid and potassium iodide are added and given time to react with hydroperoxides in the sample. The mixture is titrated to a colored endpoint. The blank is corrected for, and the hydroperoxide number is reported in mg hydroperoxide per kg of sample.

ASTM D3704 - Oscillation Friction Wear

ASTM D3704 Wear Preventative Properties of Grease Using the Block-on-Ring Test Machine in Oscillating Motion

Oscillating systems in industrial machinery often have moving metal components that slide against each other, potentially causing wear to the metals. To lessen or prevent wear, the moving metals are lubricated. This test uses a steel ring against a steel block to measure the ability of grease to reduce wear in oscillating systems.

Using a Block-on-Ring Friction and Wear Test Machine, a steel block is coated with worked test grease and put in contact with a steel ring. A load is applied and the ring is oscillated for a specified time at a specified speed. The block is then examined under a microscope for scarring. The average scar size, coefficient of friction, psi load and metal weight loss are reported. Options available for this test are time, temperature, oscillation speed, load, ring metal and block metal.

ASTM D3829 - Borderline Pumping Test per Temperature - need temperature

ASTM D3829 Predicting the Borderline Pumping Temperature of Engine Oils

For automobile engines to function properly, they require constant lubrication with engine oil.  Oil must start flowing on engine start-up, especially at low temperatures, and continue flowing during engine operation.  The ability of an oil to start flowing at low temperatures is determined by its critical yield stress, which increases as temperature decreases.  The ability of an oil to continue flowing is determined by its viscosity, which likewise increases as the temperature decreases.  Under very cold conditions, the yield stress and/or the viscosity may increase to the point that oil will not continuously flow. The borderline pumping temperature is the lowest temperature at which an adequate flow of oil can be continuously supplied to the engine.  It is defined as the maximum temperature (whichever is higher) of either the critical yield stress or the critical viscosity.

This test uses a specially designed viscosity measuring apparatus which contains a temperature controlled mini-viscometer and a calibrated rotor-stator assembly, as described in the method.  The sample is placed in the viscometer test cell assembly, heated for two hours and cooled slowly to the test temperature for the duration of the test.  The yield stress is determined by applying force to the rotor shaft until the rotor begins to turn.  The apparent viscosity is determined by multiplying the rotor speed times the test cell calibration factor.  Reported is the test temperature, yield stress and viscosity.

 

ASTM D3867* - Nitrates and Nitrites in Water

ASTM D3947 - Specific Heat by DSC - discontinued in 1997 use E1269

ASTM D4048 - Copper Corrosion - grease

ASTM D4049 - Water Spray Off

ASTM D4049 Determining the Resistance of Lubricating Grease to Water Spray

A steel panel is coated with a thin layer of the grease to be tested. A 40 psi water spray is directed at the grease coated panel for 5 minutes. The amount of grease lost to the water spray is reported as the percent spray off.

ASTM D4052 - Specific Gravity by Digital Density Meter at one temperature

ASTM D4052 Density, Relative Density and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. In oils it has numerous uses including:

  • Conversion of volume measurements to mass measurements - Many equipment manufacturers specify volume requirements for lubricants. When oil is very viscous, it may be messy and difficult to obtain an accurate volume - mass may be easier to measure. Density values provide the necessary data for volume to mass conversions.
  • Conversion of kinematic viscosity to dynamic viscosity.
  • Prediction of wear particle locations - wear debris settles more rapidly in low density oils than in high density oils. When the density of the oil is very similar to the density of the particles, the particles may remain suspended in the oil.
  • Determination of contamination - the density will often change when the oil becomes contaminated with water, wear debris or other substances.
  • Determination of the composition of binary oil mixtures - if the density of each oil is known, the mixture ratio can often be determined using density.
  • Two values closely related to density are relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity. Relative density is the density of the sample relative to the density of water at a given temperature. In addition to providing an indication of density, relative density helps predict the location of any free water in a system.

API gravity is a scale, measured in degrees API (º API), specially designed to measure relative densities of petroleum liquids. API gravity increases as density decreases - light crude oils generally have API gravities above 31.1º API and extra heavy crude oils generally have API gravities below 10.0º API.  API gravity may be used to predict volumes and densities at temperatures other than the test temperature using published tables.

In this test, the sample is carefully loaded into a digital density analyzer which is essentially an oscillating probe in a sample cell. The sample is oscillated and measured until a constant value is obtained. This value is compared to a calibrated standard. Reported is the requested density in g/ml, relative density as a unitless number or API gravity in ºAPI.

Related tests: Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories offers three types of tests to determine density, relative density and API Gravity:   

Consider a hydrometer test (see ASTM D1298) for oils when three decimal place accuracy is sufficient, and there is no shortage of available sample.

Consider a pycnometer test (see ASTM D1481) for solids, greases and highly viscous oils.

Consider a digital density meter test (this test) for low and medium density oils when high accuracy is required.

ASTM D4052 - Density by Digital Density Meter at one temperature

ASTM D4052 Density, Relative Density and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. In oils it has numerous uses including:

  • Conversion of volume measurements to mass measurements - Many equipment manufacturers specify volume requirements for lubricants. When oil is very viscous, it may be messy and difficult to obtain an accurate volume - mass may be easier to measure. Density values provide the necessary data for volume to mass conversions.
  • Conversion of kinematic viscosity to dynamic viscosity.
  • Prediction of wear particle locations - wear debris settles more rapidly in low density oils than in high density oils. When the density of the oil is very similar to the density of the particles, the particles may remain suspended in the oil.
  • Determination of contamination - the density will often change when the oil becomes contaminated with water, wear debris or other substances.
  • Determination of the composition of binary oil mixtures - if the density of each oil is known, the mixture ratio can often be determined using density.
  • Two values closely related to density are relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity. Relative density is the density of the sample relative to the density of water at a given temperature. In addition to providing an indication of density, relative density helps predict the location of any free water in a system.

API gravity is a scale, measured in degrees API (º API), specially designed to measure relative densities of petroleum liquids. API gravity increases as density decreases - light crude oils generally have API gravities above 31.1º API and extra heavy crude oils generally have API gravities below 10.0º API.  API gravity may be used to predict volumes and densities at temperatures other than the test temperature using published tables.

In this test, the sample is carefully loaded into a digital density analyzer which is essentially an oscillating probe in a sample cell. The sample is oscillated and measured until a constant value is obtained. This value is compared to a calibrated standard. Reported is the requested density in g/ml, relative density as a unitless number or API gravity in ºAPI.

Related tests: Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories offers three types of tests to determine density, relative density and API Gravity:   

Consider a hydrometer test (see ASTM D1298) for oils when three decimal place accuracy is sufficient, and there is no shortage of available sample.

Consider a pycnometer test (see ASTM D1481) for solids, greases and highly viscous oils.

Consider a digital density meter test (this test) for low and medium density oils when high accuracy is required.

ASTM D4059 - PCB Content by DEXIL Field Test Kit.

ASTM D4170 - Fretting Wear Protection

ASTM D4170 Fretting Wear Protection by Lubricating Greases

Two thrust type bearings lubricated with grease are loaded to 550 pounds force and oscillated through a 12° arc at 1800 cycles per minute for 22 hours at room temperature.

The fretting wear is the average weight loss of the two bearings.  The fretting wear requirement for ASTM D4950 greases is 10 mg loss maximum.

ASTM D4170 - Fretting Wear Protection, Low Temperature

ASTM D4170 Fretting Wear Protection by Lubricating Greases

Two thrust type bearings lubricated with grease are loaded to 550 pounds force and oscillated through a 12° arc at 1800 cycles per minute for 22 hours at room temperature.

The fretting wear is the average weight loss of the two bearings.  The fretting wear requirement for ASTM D4950 greases is 10 mg loss maximum.

ASTM D4172 - Four Ball Wear of Oil @ 1 hr.

ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its "wear preventative characteristics". Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980"s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D4172 - Four Ball Wear of Oil @ 2 hrs.

ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its "wear preventative characteristics". Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980"s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D4172 - Four Ball Wear of Oil @ 4 hrs.

ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its "wear preventative characteristics". Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980"s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D4172 - Four Ball Wear of Oil w/Coefficient of Friction Graph @ 1 hr.

ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its "wear preventative characteristics". Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980"s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D4172 - Four Ball Wear of Oil w/Coefficient of Friction Graph @ 2 hrs

ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its "wear preventative characteristics". Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980"s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D4172 - Four Ball Wear of Oil with M-50 Steel Balls @1 hr.

ASTM D4172 Wear Preventative Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method)

Lubricants intended for use with moving steel parts normally contain compounds to inhibit damage to rubbing metal, giving the lubricant its "wear preventative characteristics". Although this test is designed to compare lubricants in steel-on-steel applications, we are able to test other metals, such as bronze, at your request. Use ASTM D2266 for grease and ASTM D4172 for oils.

In the early 1980"s Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs developed a method to determine the coefficient of friction during this test. Using a computer-enhanced data collection system, the progression of the test is followed and a time versus coefficient of friction graph is generated. Our clients find this to be an extremely useful tool in evaluating their lubricants.

In this test, three steel balls are arranged in a circle, locked in place and coated with the test lubricant. A forth ball is placed on top, in the center of the three balls. The system is heated, load is applied and the top ball is spun at 1200 revolutions-per-minute. The three lower balls are removed, cleaned and examined under a microscope. The scars resulting from sliding against the top ball are measured. The average size of the scars is reported in millimeters.

When requesting this test, please let us know if you would like any modifications from the ASTM method, including changes to temperature, time, speed, load or metal.

 

ASTM D4206 - Burning Point of Liquid Mixtures Using Small Scale Open Cup

ASTM D4206 Sustained Burning of Liquid Mixtures Using the Small Scale Open-Cup Apparatus

Spray lubricants, fuel additives, paints, adhesives and other products often contain a mixture of a flammable liquid with an inflammable one.  The flammability of these mixtures helps determine end use properties.  For example, fuel additives need the proper flammability to function in internal combustion engines; paints need a low flammability for safety during use.  This test determines the flammability of liquid mixtures.

A metal cup is brought to the test temperature, the sample is added and given time to equilibrate.  A flame is brought over the cup and held there for the test time.  The flame is removed and the sample is observed.  If the sample ignites, the length of time the sample continues to burn and the burning characteristics are reported.

ASTM D4289 - Elastomer Compatibility NBR L (AMS3217/2C) AND CR (AMS3217/3B)

ASTM D4289 Compatibility of Lubricating Grease with Elastomers

The compatibility of elastomers NBR-L and CR are measured at standard times and temperatures for swelling under exposure to the sample.  This test may be modified to use different types of rubber, and other times and temperatures.  This test evaluates compatibility with seals, gaskets, hoses, and other elastomer parts.

ASTM D4289 - Elastomer Compatibility NBR L (AMS3217/2C) OR CR (AMS3217/3B)

ASTM D4289 Compatibility of Lubricating Grease with Elastomers

The compatibility of elastomers NBR-L and CR are measured at standard times and temperatures for swelling under exposure to the sample.  This test may be modified to use different types of rubber, and other times and temperatures.  This test evaluates compatibility with seals, gaskets, hoses, and other elastomer parts.

ASTM D4290 - Leakage of Wheel Bearing Greases

ASTM D4290 - Leakage Tendencies of Automotive Wheel Bearing Grease Under Accelerated Conditions

Automobile wheel bearings are exposed to high loads, high speeds and high temperatures. For the bearings to operate efficiently for long periods of time they require a grease that resists mechanical and thermal changes, one that will not separate, slump, soften or leak. The grease also needs to resist the formation of sludge, varnish, gum and lacquer. This test quantitatively determines bearing leakage and qualitatively reports observations of the grease appearance at the end of the test.

This method uses a specifically designed hub-spindle-bearing assembly. A standard quantity of test grease is packed into the inboard and outboard tapered roller bearing cones. An additional standard quantity of grease is packed into the hub and the unit is assembled as per the method. A thrust load is applied, the spindle speed and the temperature are set and the bearings are allowed to spin for the predetermined time. The amount of grease and oil that falls from the assembly is measured. Reported are the grams of grease that leak from the bearings and any observations of the grease condition, such as the formation of gums, varnish or lacquer-like material.

ASTM D4294* - Sulfur by EDXRF (X-Ray) in Oil

ASTM D4308 - Electrical Conductivity of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Precision Meter

ASTM D4310 - Sludging Tendencies of Inhibited Mineral Oil

ASTM D4377 - Water Content, Karl Fischer (potentiometric) grease & oil

ASTM D4377Water in Crude Oils by Potentiometric Karl Fischer Titration

Water may be detrimental to lubricants. It may catalyze oxidation, lessen anti-corrosion properties, cause precipitation of additives and change viscosities, dielectric constants, and resistivity values. It is therefore desirable to know the water content of a lubricant.

This method measures water content of lubricants using the Karl Fischer reaction. The sample is combined with the appropriate reagents and the Karl Fisher (iodine-containing) reagent is titrated into the mixture. The percent water by weight is reported.

Related potentiometric Karl-Fischer tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

For volatile solvents:

ASTM D1364 Water in Volatile Solvents (Fischer Reagent Titration Method)

For volumetric information:

ASTM E203 Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories offers four types of tests to determine water contents:

Consider a coulometric method(ASTM D6304) when very low levels of water are predicted (10 to 25,000 ppm)

Consider a potentiometric method (such as this method) when slightly higher levels of water are predicted (0.2 to 2%):

Consider a distillation method (ASTM D95) for higher levels of water (up to 25%)

Consider the centrifuge method (ASTM D1796) for even higher levels of water (up to 30%) or if both water and sediment are of interest:

ASTM D4425 - Oil Separation Koppers Method Set Up Fee

ASTM D4425 - Oil Separation from Lubricating Greases by Centrifuging (Koppers Method)

Lubricating greases in flexible shaft couplings, universal joints and roller element thrust bearings may experience large, prolonged centrifugal forces. This may cause the oil to separate from the thickener, potentially resulting in reduced lubrication, overheating of system components and system failure. This test determines the amount of oil that separates from a grease under a high centrifugal force.

The grease is weighed into centrifuge tubes, and centrifuged in a high speed centrifuge for the test time. The separated oil is drained, measured and the percent separation is reported.

 

ASTM D4425 - Oil Separation Koppers Method Running -charge per test interval

ASTM D4425 - Oil Separation from Lubricating Greases by Centrifuging (Koppers Method)

Lubricating greases in flexible shaft couplings, universal joints and roller element thrust bearings may experience large, prolonged centrifugal forces. This may cause the oil to separate from the thickener, potentially resulting in reduced lubrication, overheating of system components and system failure. This test determines the amount of oil that separates from a grease under a high centrifugal force.

The grease is weighed into centrifuge tubes, and centrifuged in a high speed centrifuge for the test time. The separated oil is drained, measured and the percent separation is reported.

 

ASTM D4425 - Oil Extraction only by Koppers Method

ASTM D4425 - Oil Separation from Lubricating Greases by Centrifuging (Koppers Method)

Tests such as kinematic viscosity and biodegradability require an oil.  If the oil of interest is in a formulated grease, the oil must be separated from the grease prior to testing.  This test uses a high speed centrifuge to separate oil from grease so that the extracted oil may be tested.

            The grease is placed into centrifuge tubes, and centrifuged in a high speed centrifuge until a sufficient quantity of oil is recovered.

ASTM D4627 - Iron Chip Corrosion Test

ASTM D4627 Iron Chip Corrosion for Water - Dilutable Metalworking Fluids

Cast iron chips are placed on a filter paper in a petri dish containing a fluid and allowed to stand for 20 to 24 hours at room temperature.  Dilutions by weight % as follows are tested (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10%). The weakest concentration which results is no rust stain on the filter paper is defined as the 'breakpoint'.

ASTM D4628 - Atomic Absorption (Ba, Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe) per element

ASTM D4636 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability up to 72 hours

ASTM D4636 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This ASTM Method describes Federal Test Methods 5307 and 5308.  The configuration of the test cell, metal specimens, and arrangement is different for each method.

FTM-5307 uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass pacers.

FTM-5308 uses 1x1 square metal specimens tied together in a specific arrangement placed in the bottom of the glass test cell or tube.

Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications.  Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling.

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge.  Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

ASTM D4636 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 168 hours

ASTM D4636 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This ASTM Method describes Federal Test Methods 5307 and 5308.  The configuration of the test cell, metal specimens, and arrangement is different for each method.

FTM-5307 uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass pacers.

FTM-5308 uses 1x1 square metal specimens tied together in a specific arrangement placed in the bottom of the glass test cell or tube.

Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications.  Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling.

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge.  Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

ASTM D4636 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability. Cost per sampling interval

ASTM D4636, FTM-5307, FTM-5308 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This ASTM Method describes Federal Test Methods 5307 and 5308.  The configuration of the test cell, metal specimens, and arrangement is different for each method. 
FTM-5307 uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass pacers. 
FTM-5308 uses 1x1 square metal specimens tied together in a specific arrangement placed in the bottom of the glass test cell or tube. 
Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications.  Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate.  Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling. 
Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge.  Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

ASTM D4683* - High Temp/High Shear Viscosity by Tapered Bearing

ASTM D4684 - Yield Stress/Apparent Viscosity (MRV) per Temp - need temp.

ASTM D4693 - Low Temperature Torque of Wheel Bearing Greases

ASTM D4693 Low Temperature Torque of Grease Lubricated Wheel Bearings

The torque resulting from grease lubricated tapered roller bearings rotating at one rpm is measured.  The test uses an automotive type front wheel hub and spindle assembly.  The assembly is cold soaked for 5 hours at -40°C.  The torque is measured for 60 seconds of running time.  The torque maximum at the beginning of the run and the stable torque after 60 seconds are reported.  A graphic representation of the run is presented to visually compare data between samples.  Values less than 15 N-m torque are considered adequately mobile for wheel bearing applications.  Test temperatures from -20°C to -55°C can also be accommodated.

ASTM D4739 - Base Number Total, by Hydrochloric Acid Method

ASTM D4739 Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration

Some additives in lubricating oils are basic, and absorb acids that form due to oxidation. The level of basic components is indicated by base number - a high base number indicates a high level of basic components, a low number indicates a low level. This test determines base number. In service oils it may predict the oil's ability to absorb acids as they are produced; changes in base number may indicate additive depletion.

The sample is accurately weighed into the titration vessel, solvent is added and the electrodes are immersed. The sample is titrated with alcoholic potassium hydroxide, and meter readings recorded, plotted and the endpoint is determined. The base number is reported in mg KOH per gram of sample.

Related test offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

For new oils or for oils where both strong and weak bases are of interest:

ASTM D2896 Base Number in Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration

For base number determination colorimetrically:

ASTM D974 Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration

ASTM D4742 - Thin Film Oxygen Uptake Test - TFOUT

ASTM D4890 - Color, APHA, and Platinum Cobalt

ASTM D4890 Polyurethane Raw Materials:  Determination of Gardner and APHA Color of Polyols

The color of polyols and lubricating oils may indicate the degree of refinement or the presence of contaminants (including soot, oxidation products and packing debris) .  This test determines the color of fluids using either the APHA Color Scale or the Gardner Color Scale.  The APHA Color scale (Platinum/Cobalt Color Scale or the Hazen Color Scale) measures the color of transparent liquids, differentiating between shades of pale yellow in nearly colorless samples.  The scale runs from 0 to 500 hundred with 0 being distilled water.  The Gardner Color Scale also differentiates between shades of yellow, but it measures a wider range of colors to include red-yellows and green yellows.  It runs from 0 to 18 with 0 being distilled water and 18 being a dark, murky yellow.  A 500 on the APHA Color Scale corresponds to a 2 on the Gardner Color Scale.

Colored standard solutions are prepared.  The sample is placed in the test container and compared to standards.  The color of the standard that most closely matches the sample is reported.  Please specify Method A (Gardner Color) or Method B (APHA Color).

       

ASTM D4898 - Gravimetric Analysis by Filtration

ASTM D4898 Insoluble Contamination of Hydraulic Fluids by Gravimetric Analysis

Hydraulically operated machinery depends upon hydraulic fluids to convey power and lubricate and protect machinery components from wear and thermal damage. These systems contain pumps, valves, seals and precise moving parts that are prone to damage from solid particulates that may be present in the fluid. This test determines the mass of solid particles in hydraulic fluids.

A homogenous aliquot of the sample is filtered through a membrane filter. The filter is rinsed with solvent to remove any sample oil, leaving only the solid particles that were present in the original sample. The mass of these solid particles is reported.

ASTM D4927 - Elemental Analysis by WDXRF (X-Ray)(Ba, Ca, P, S, Zn)

ASTM D4929* - Chlorides, Organic in Crude oils

ASTM D4950 - NLGI Series - see individual NLGI Series for pricing & sample qty - Wheel Bearing Grease

ASTM D5133 - Brookfield, Scanning (+20°C to -40°C)

ASTM D5183 - Coefficient of Friction, Step Load Procedure

ASTM D5185 - Metals by ICP-OES (30 elements)

ASTM D5275* - Shear Stability by Fuel Injection Test

ASTM D5291* - Nitrogen Content (C-H-N Method)

ASTM D5293 - Apparent Viscosity by Cold Cranking Simulator - need temp.

ASTM D5293 Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils and Base Stocks Between -5 and -35oC Using Cold Cranking Simulator

Lubricating oils are designed to protect engines from metal-on-metal wear. The viscosity of these oils normally increases as the temperature decreases. In cold weather, engine oil may become so viscous that it will not properly protect the engine. This test determines the viscosity of engine oil under very cold conditions, such as that seen in winter operations.

The test oil is applied to the rotor and stator of a cold cranking simulator and the system is cooled to the test temperature. The motor is started and the speed is recorded. This speed is compared to a standard calibrated oil to determine the apparent viscosity, which is reported in centipoises. Please provide the test temperature.

ASTM D5306 - Flame Propagation

ASTM D5453* - Sulfur Content by U.V. Fluorescence

ASTM D5483 - Oxidation Stability of Greases by PDSC

ASTM D5483 Oxidation Induction Time of Lubricating Greases by Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Some greases or oils react with atmospheric oxygen to produce insoluble gums and sludges, which may decrease the performance of the lubricant. To lessen the rate of oxidation, antioxidants are added. This test may be used to compare antioxidants and may predict the relative life of a lubricant. It requires a small amount of sample and it gives results in hours rather than days, weeks or even months as required by other tests.

A small quantity of grease (ASTM D5483) or oil (ASTM D6186) is heated to a specified temperature and then pressurized with oxygen. The pressure and temperature are maintained until an exothermic reaction occurs, up to 120 minutes. If the reaction occurs in less than ten minutes, a lower temperature is tested as per the method (210ºC, 180ºC, 155ºC for grease and 210ºC, 180ºC, 155ºC, 130ºC for oil).  The time from pressurization to exotherm is reported.   Please let us know if you require a temperature other than those specified in the method.

ASTM D5554 - Iodine Value

ASTM D5554 Determination of Iodine Value of Fats and Oils

Oxidation of oils may produce acid, sludge and varnish. Oils that contain a large number of double bonds (highly unsaturated oils) may be more prone to oxidation than oils with few double bonds. The iodine number provides an indication of the number of double bonds - low iodine numbers indicate a small number of double bonds, large iodine numbers indicate large numbers of double bonds. It has also been found that the Iodine Value may be used to predict the compatibility of oils to elastomers because the degree of saturation of the molecule indicates its tendency to de-polymerize the rubber structure. This test determines the iodine number using a titration with a visible blue endpoint.

A specified weight of sample is placed in a flask, iodine mono-chloride reagent is added and the mixture is given time to react. Potassium iodide and water are then added. Using a starch indicator, the mixture is titrated with sodium thio-sulfate until a blue color is obtained. The value of the blank is subtracted and the iodine number is reported.

ASTM D5620 - Falex Pin & V of Thin Film Lubricants and Dry Film

ASTM D5621 - Sonic Shear Stability

ASTM D5621 Sonic Shear Stability of Hydraulic Fluids

When a hydraulic pump is operated, the hydraulic fluid experiences varying temperatures, pressures and other stresses. This may cause changes in the fluid's viscosity, potentially reducing the effectiveness and safe operating ranges. Polymers are added to improve the viscosity index of these fluids. This test determines the percentage of viscosity changes in polymer-containing fluids exposed to sonic shearing vibrations.

The initial viscosity is determined. The sample is then placed in the test beaker, brought to the test temperature and irradiated in a sonic oscillator for the test time. The viscosity of the irradiated sample is taken. The report lists the initial viscosity, the final viscosity and the percent viscosity change in centistokes.

ASTM D5621 - Sonic Shear Stability with 40°C and 100°C viscosities

ASTM D5621 Sonic Shear Stability of Hydraulic Fluids

When a hydraulic pump is operated, the hydraulic fluid experiences varying temperatures, pressures and other stresses. This may cause changes in the fluid's viscosity, potentially reducing the effectiveness and safe operating ranges. Polymers are added to improve the viscosity index of these fluids. This test determines the percentage of viscosity changes in polymer-containing fluids exposed to sonic shearing vibrations.

The initial viscosity is determined. The sample is then placed in the test beaker, brought to the test temperature and irradiated in a sonic oscillator for the test time. The viscosity of the irradiated sample is taken. The report lists the initial viscosity, the final viscosity and the percent viscosity change in centistokes.

ASTM D5762* - Nitrogen Content by Chemiluminescence

ASTM D5768 - Iodine Number, WIJS

ASTM D5768 Determination of Iodine Value of Tall Oil Fatty Acids

Tall oil fatty acids are isolated from the bi-products of paper production. They are used in drilling fluids, metal working fluids and lubricants because of their attractive biodegradability, cost and physical properties. The main drawback of these tall oils is the presence of double bonds which may lead to oxidation and shorten the life of the fluid or lubricant. This test may be used to estimate the level of unsaturation (number of double bonds) in tall oil fatty acids by determining the iodine value. A low iodine value indicates a low level of unsaturation, and possible slower rate of oxidation.

A weighted sample is placed into a flask and dissolved in solvent. An acidic solution of chlorine and iodine is added and the solution is given time to react. Potassium iodide is added and the solution is titrated with sodium thio-sulfate to a visible endpoint using a starch indicator. The blank is subtracted and the iodine value is reported.

ASTM D5969 - Rust Prevention in Synthetic Sea Water

ASTM D6082 - Foam Characteristics - High Temperature

ASTM D6082 High Temperature Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

Lubricants in high speed gears, high volume pumping and splash lubricating systems may be exposed to high temperatures and rapid agitation, potentially incorporating air and resulting in foam formation. This test determines the amount of foam that forms when a fluid, especially a motor oil or transmission fluid, is exposed to high temperature.

The sample is measured into a large graduated cylinder, brought to the test temperature and air is bubbled through the sample for the test time. The amount of static foam and kinetic foam that forms, total and percent volume increase and the foam collapse time are reported.

ASTM D6138 - EMCOR Rust Test (per bearing) (also see IP 220, DIN 51802)

ASTM D6181 - Turbidity by HACH Turbidmeter

ASTM D6181 Measurement of Turbidity in Mineral Insulating Oil of Petroleum Origin

Turbidity, which is a measure of cloudiness or haziness in oil, is typically caused by suspended matter. It may be an indication of contamination, degradation or trapped water.  This test determines the turbidity on the NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit) scale which goes from 0 to 500, where 0 is a clear oil and 500 is an extremely turbid oil.   

The sample is placed into the specimen cell and the cell is inserted into the turbidimeter.  The turbidity is read and reported in NTUs.

This method is considered obsolete by ASTM.

Note:  This test is still offered by Petro-Lube as a service to our clients.

 

ASTM D6184 - Oil Separation, Wire Cone Method

ASTM D6184 Oil Separation from Lubricating Grease (Conical Sieve Method)

The bleeding of oil from grease under static conditions and elevated temperatures is measured.  Temperatures from 150°F to 450°F can be used.  30 hours is the usual test period but may be extended or shortened as necessary. 
The tendency of oil to separate either during storage or when idle in a hot bearing can be an important property.  This test can distinguish between greases that will either promote or prevent oil separation according to the demands of the application. 
API Bulletin 5A2 (A.3) substitutes a nickel cone with 1.0 mm holes for the wire screen used in ASTM D6184 and FTM-321. 
This technique may simulate oil losses expected through the grease seals typically used on machines and tools used in 'Lubricated for Life' bearings.

ASTM D6185 - Compatibility of Binary Grease Mixtures (10/90, 50/50, 90/10)

ASTM D6185 Evaluating Compatibility of Binary Mixtures of Lubricating Grease

This method is a protocol for determining the range and variety of test which may be employed to determine the compatibility of various mixtures of greases under selected conditions.  The supplier and user agree as to the values to be tested.

ASTM D6185 - High Temperature Storage Stability @ 72 hrs.

ASTM D6185 Evaluating Compatibility of Binary Mixtures of Lubricating Grease

This method is a protocol for determining the range and variety of test which may be employed to determine the compatibility of various mixtures of greases under selected conditions.  The supplier and user agree as to the values to be tested.

ASTM D6186 - Oxidation Stability of Oils/Greases by PDSC

ASTM D-6186 Oxidation Induction Time of Lubricating Oils by Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Some greases and oils react with atmospheric oxygen to produce insoluble gums and sludges, which may decrease the performance of the lubricant. To lessen the rate of oxidation, antioxidants are added. This test may be used to compare antioxidants and may predict the relative life of a lubricant. It requires a small amount of sample and it gives results in hours rather than days, weeks or even months as required by other tests.

A small quantity of grease (ASTM D-5483) or oil (ASTM D-6186) is heated to a specified temperature and then pressurized with oxygen. The pressure and temperature are maintained until an exothermic reaction occurs, up to 120 minutes. If the reaction occurs in less than ten minutes, a lower temperature is tested as per the method (210ºC, 180ºC, 155ºC for grease and 210ºC, 180ºC, 155ºC, 130ºC for oil). The time from pressurization to exotherm is reported. Please let us know if you require a temperature other than those specified in the method.

ASTM D6200 - Cooling Characteristics of Quenching Oils

ASTM D6200 Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quenching Oils by Cooling Curve Analysis

Quenching oils immerse very hot metals to cool them at a controlled rate without thermal gradients or crystallization. This allows cooling steel to achieve maximum hardness without weak spots. When quenching oils age, their effectiveness may decrease due to viscosity changes and the formation of sludge. This test determines the cooling profiles of quenching oils when hot metal is immersed. It is appropriate for new oils or service oils.

A metal heat probe is placed in a furnace and allowed to come to the initial test temperature (850oC). It is then transferred to the quenching oil sample and the profile of its cooling is recorded. Reported is the maximum cooling rate, and the temperature at which it occurs, and the time it takes to reach 600oC, 400oC and 200oC.

 

ASTM D6278* - Shear Stability by Diesel Injector Apparatus

ASTM D6304 - Water Content, Karl Fischer (Coulometric) of Oils

ASTM D6304 Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

The quantity of water in new oil may be an indication of its quality and predicted performance characteristics. The quantity of water in service oil may be an indication of its remaining useful life. Water can hasten the breakdown, oxidation and sludge formation of oil, potentially causing the oil to no longer protect the components that it is meant to protect. This method is useful for determining low levels of water in petroleum products, hydrocarbon solvents and automatic transmission fluids.

The reaction of water in the sample with Karl Fischer (iodine-containing) reagent electrochemically generated in the titration vessel is followed coulometrically. The water content of the sample is reported in mg water per kg sample (ppm by weight).

Related Coulometric tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories: 

For hydrocarbons and petroleum products including lubricating oils, consider this test method

For volatile solvents and chemical intermediates in paint, varnish, lacquer and related products, consider ASTM D1364 Water in Volatile Solvents (Fischer Reagent Titration Method) 

For electrical insulating fluids consider ASTM D1533 Water in Insulating Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

 For other organic liquids consider ASTM E1064 Water in Organic Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories offers four types of tests to determine water contents. Consider a coulometric method, (such as this one) when very low levels of water are expected (10 to 25,000 ppm). Consider a potentiometric method (see ASTM D4377 Water in Crude Oils by Potentiometric Karl Fischer Titration) when slightly higher levels of water are predicted (0.2 to 2%). Consider a distillation method (see ASTM D95  Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation) for higher levels of water (up to 25%) and consider the centrifuge method ASTM D1796  Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure) ) for even higher levels of water (up to 30%) or if both water and sediment are of interest.

ASTM D6334 - Sulfur in Gasoline by WDXRF (X-Ray)

ASTM D6351 - Low Temperature Stability, 72 hrs. @ -25°C

ASTM D6375 - NOACK Volatility by TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)

ASTM D6375 - Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) Noack Method

In normal motor vehicle operation, lubricating oils may be exposed to high temperatures, potentially causing lighter components to evaporate and thus changing the oil's viscosity. This may result in an increase in engine wear and fuel and oil consumption. Evaporative losses may also increase emissions and are therefore regulated in some localities. This test determines the evaporative loss in lubricating oils by comparing the mass decrease of the sample with the mass decrease of a standard oil. It is appropriate for both base stocks and fully formulated oils. The test is faster, requires a smaller sample size and is often more reproducible than other evaporative loss methods, including the traditional Noack Volatility test ASTM D5800 .

A standard reference oil is accurately weighed, placed in the TGA (a microbalance with computer capabilities to follow mass loss) under a constant stream of dried air, and heated to the test temperature. The mass of the standard oil is followed until a predetermined percentage of the oil mass is lost (as determined by ASTM D5800). The time it takes the standard oil to lose this weight percentage is the Noack Time. The sample oil is then likewise weighed and heated under the constant stream of air. The percentage of mass lost at the Noack Time is reported as percent evaporative loss.

ASTM D6376 - Trace Elements in Petroleum Coke by WDXRF (X-Ray)

ASTM D6417 - Volatility by Capillary GC

ASTM D6443 - Elements in Used Oil and Additives by WDXRF (X-Ray)

ASTM D6482 - Cooling Characteristics of Aqueous & Water Soluble Materials

ASTM D6482 Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Aqueous Polymer Quenchants by Cooling Curve Analysis with Agitation (Tensi Method) When metals are heated to high temperatures and formed into desired products, they must then be cooled to room temperature. To achieve the best properties, such as hardness, the metal is placed in a quenching fluid to cool quickly and evenly. This test determines the cooling profile for sample quenching fluids. A nickel alloy probe is placed in a furnace and given time to heat to the test temperature. The hot probe is placed in the test sample, and data is collected as the sample cools. Reported is the maximum cooling rate, cooling rate at 300ºC and the quenching time to 600ºC, 400ºC and 200ºC.

ASTM D6547 - Corrosiveness, Bimetallic couple

ASTM D6786 - Particle Count using Automatic Optical Particle Counters

ASTM D6793 - Bulk Modulus, Pressure Cylinder Technique @ 40°C

ASTM D6793 Bulk Modulus

The compressibility of a fluid is termed Bulk Modulus and is the unit volume change per unit volume of sample at the selected pressure. The compressibility of a fluid changes with pressure and temperature. In the case of Mil-H-83282, measurement of Bulk Modulus is taken at 40°C between 1,000 and 10,000 psi.

The value is useful for fluid specifications in hydraulic systems. Specification requirements for Mil-H-83282 have a minimum value of 1.379 x 106kPa.

ASTM D7303 - Metals Analysis by ICP-OES using Microwave Digestion

ASTM D7342 - Shear Stability of Grease in Presence of Water: Procedure A (100,000 Stroke )

ASTM D7342 - Shear Stability of Grease in Presence of Water: Procedure B (Roll Stability )

ASTM D7342 Shear Stability of Lubricating Grease in Presence of Water (Water Stability Test)

The consistency (firmness) of a grease can change during use. If the grease becomes contaminated with water, such as grease used outdoors, the change may be more significant. This test compares worked penetration values before and after water contamination.Please choose either Procedure A or Procedure B:

Procedure A (Wet Prolonged Worked Test) – A 60 stroke worked cone penetration value (ASTM D217 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease) is determined on the test grease. The grease is blended with a specified amount of water, and as per ASTM D217, put through a prolonged (100,000 stroke) worked stability, and a final cone penetration value is determined. The change in penetration value is reported.

Procedure B (Wet Shell Roll Test) ? A worked cone penetration value (ASTM D1403 Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease Using One-Quarter and One-Half Scale Cone Equipment) is determined on the test grease. A specified amount of grease and water are placed in a roll cylinder, rolled for a specified period of time and a final cone penetration value is determined.  The change in penetration value is reported.

ASTM D7373 - Biodegradability of Lubricants

ASTM D7373 Predicting Biodegradability of Lubricants Using a Bio-kinetic Model

A biodegradable substance is one which is broken down into smaller molecules by microbes. This test is intended to predict the amount of a lubricating oil that will biodegrade in a specified period of time, typically 28 days.

Traditional tests to predict biodegradability include ASTM D5864, ASTM D6139 and ASTM D6731. All three of these tests add microorganisms to the lubricant and follow the production of carbon dioxide as the lubricant breaks down. The amount of CO produced is used to calculate the amount of sample that has biodegraded. These tests take a month to run and have the inherent difficulties and variability of microorganism use. (Please note: Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories does not offer these microorganism tests).

The bio-kinetic model test offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories does not involve microorganisms. It uses known biodegradation rates of typical base lubricants classified using chromatographic methods to predict the amount of sample that will biodegrade in 28 days.

The sample is chromatographically separated into four fractions based on polarity. Biodegradable oil components, typically polyalphaolefins and esters, elute in the first and third fractions. Using the percentage of oil in these fractions, with known biodegradation rates, the percent of oil predicted to biodegrade in 28 days is calculated and reported.

ASTM D7536 - Chlorine in Aromatics by WDXRF (X-Ray)

ASTM E70 - pH of Aqueous Solutions with Glass Electrode

ASTM E70 - pH of Aqueous Solutions with Glass Electrode

Aqueous solutions are used in numerous lubricating applications, such as metal working fluids and coolants. If the pH of these solutions is not correct, metals in the system may corrode, the solutions may oxidize or degrade and biological growth may be accelerated. This test determines the pH of aqueous solutions using a glass electrode.

The pH meter is calibrated, the electrode is immersed in the aqueous sample solution and the pH is measured and reported to 0.01 pH units.

ASTM E202 - Analysis of Ethylene & Propylene Glycols

ASTM E203 - Water Content by KFR Titration

ASTM E203 Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

This method potentiometrically determines the percent water by volume in organic liquids, including lubricating oils and crude oils.

For more information please see ASTM D4377 "Water in Crude Oils by Potentiometric Karl Fischer Titration".

ASTM E659 - Autoignition Temperature - Hot Flame

ASTM E659 Autoignition Temperature of Liquid Chemicals

When heated, some materials form vapors that react with atmospheric oxygen to spontaneously combust or "autoignite" - no ignition source is needed. The lowest temperature at which this happens is the autoignition temperature (AIT). This test measures AITs up to 600 ° C. There is a delay time between the sample reaching the AIT and combustion occurring. This is also determined in this test.

A flask is heated to the test temperature. A small quantity of sample is injected into the flask and observed to see if ignition occurs. If it does not, the flask is cleaned and the process is repeated at a higher temperature. When autoignition is observed, the temperature, delay time and barometric pressure are reported.

ASTM E1064 - Water Content, Karl Fischer (coulometric) oil

ASTM E1064 Water in Organic Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

This test method coulometrically determines the mass percent water in most organic liquids.

For more information, please see:

ASTM D6304 Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

ASTM E1131 - Evaporation Loss by TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)

ASTM E1252 - Infrared Spectrograph - FTIR

ASTM E1269 - Specific Heat by DSC (multi temps one charge)

 

ASTM E1269 Specific Heat by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

     Heat build-up in mechanical and electrical equipment may damage expensive components, potentially causing system failure and expensive repairs. Heat transfer fluids are designed to absorb and dissipate heat before it causes problems. The amount of thermal energy that an oil can absorb is its specific heat capacity. An oil with a low specific heat capacity will heat up very quickly and absorb little thermal energy. A fluid with a high specific heat capacity will absorb a large quantity of thermal energy. Normally fluids with high specific heat capacities are best for heat transfer applications. This test determines specific heat capacities.

     The sample is accurately weighed in the test pan and heated at a controlled rate using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The heat flow is followed, and compared to the heat flow of a standard sapphire crystal heated at the same controlled rate. The specific heat capacity is reported in both Joules gram-1 K-1 and calories gram-1 ºC-1. Please specify the temperatures of interest when requesting this test.

Related tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories: PLTL-73 "Thermal Conductivity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry"; PLTL-108 "DSC Thermogram"; PLTL -170 "Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Calorimetry".

ASTM E1641 - Decomposition Kinetics by Thermogravimetry (TGA)

ASTM E1858 - Oxidation Induction Time of Hydrocarbons by DSC

ASTM E1868 - Loss-on-Drying by Thermogravimetry (TGA)

ASTM E1868 SCAQMD Rule 1144 - Loss-on-Drying by Thermogravimetry (TGA) - SCAQMD Rule 1144

ASTM E2009 - Oxidation Onsent by DSC

ASTM E2071 - Calculating Heat of Vaporization or Sublimation of Vapor Pressure Data

ASTM E2626 - Calcium Content by ICP OES or A.A.

ASTM F312 - Particulate Contamination (Suggest FTM-3012)

ASTM F313 - Gravimetric Contamination (Suggest FTM-3010)

ASTM F483 - Total Immersion Corrosion of Coolants & Deicing Compounds

ASTM F1110 - Sandwich Corrosion Test

BJ 101-04 - Oxidation Stability @ 500 hrs., Ford Method (Per run)

BJ 113 - Film Strength Durability, Ford Method

BT-7 - Navistar International Transportation, Water Tolerance

BT-9 - Navistar International Transportation, Humidity Corrosion

BT-10 - Navistar International Transportation, Oxidation & Corrosion

BT-13 - Navistar International Transportation, Stability Heating Test

BT-20 - Navistar International Transportation, Load Carrying Ability

BT-30 - Navistar International Transportation, Foaming Characteristics

BT-36 - Navistar International Transportation, Petroleum Ether Insolubles

CEC L-85-T-99 - DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry)

CTM 0225B - Mean Hertz Load by Shell 4-Ball, Dow Corning Method

CTM 0351B - Wear Scar by 4-Ball, Dow Corning Method

DIN 51350-5 - Four Ball Wear - Method A or Method B or Method C

DIN 51350-5 - Four Ball Wear with Coefficient of Friction - Method A or Method B or Method C

DIN 51381 - Air Release Properties per Temperature

DIN 51587 - Aging Behavior of Steam Turbine Oils

DIN 51802 - EMCOR Rust Test (per bearing)

DIN 51802 Determination of Corrosion Prevention Properties of Lubricating Greases Under Dynamic Wet Conditions - EMCOR Test

This is a dynamic resistance test for grease using a double row self-aligning ball bearings. Distilled water, or any concentration of salt water may be used. The test is a more severe bearing test than than ASTM D1743.

DIN 51805 - Kesternich Technique, Flow Pressure - need temperature

DIN 51807 - Static Water Resistance at 40°C

DIN 51807 - Static Water Resistance at 90°C

DIN 51817 - Oil Separation @ 168 hrs.

DIN 51817 - Oil Separation @ 18 hrs.

DIN 53169 - pH @ 20°C

DIN 53521 - Rubber & Elastomer Behavior

DO-30 - Flame Projection, Canadian Ministry of Health

EDXRF* - Zinc by X-Ray

EN 16028 Annex B - Water Wash-Off

EN 16028 Annex B Water Wash Off (Railway Applications-Wheel/Rail Friction Management Lubricants for Train Borne and Trackside Applications - Water Wash Off)

Railroads rely on specialized wheel-rail interface lubricants (curve lubricants) to limit friction, noise, wear and energy consumption.  For a lubricant to be effective, it needs to protect metal components when exposed directly to rain or water splashed from other sources.  This test indicates the ability of a lubricant to stay adhered to and prevent corrosion on wheel-rail interfaces.

The lubricant is applied to a standard metal plate.  Water is dropped onto the plate for 24 hours as specified by the test method.  The plate is then allowed to dry for 48 hours and evaluated for corrosion on the steel plate or ruptures in the grease coating surface.

          

EPA 24 - Volatile Matter

EPA 5530 - Phenol Content

FTM-202 - Cloud Intensity, Barium Chloride Technique

FTM-202 (FED-STD-791 Method 202.1) Cloud Intensity at Low Temperature

In extremely cold environments components of lubricating oils may become less soluble, causing the oil to become cloudy or “turbid”.  This may lessen the effectiveness of the lubricant.   This test compares the low temperature turbidity of the sample oil to the turbidity of a standard barium chloride solution.

The sample is placed in the test container and cooled to the test temperature.  At the end of the test period the turbidity of the sample is compared to the turbidity of the standard.  The turbidity of the sample is reported as “more than”, “less than” or “equal to” the standard.  

      

FTM-313 - Penetration, Worked Stability (100,000 Stroke)

FTM 313 (FED-STD-791 method 313) Penetration of Lubrication Greases After Prolonged Working

This method uses a standard grease worker for a prolonged work stability (100,000 stroke) penetration as in ASTM D217 "Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease", but applies a greater shear stress to the sample.

In a standard grease worker, the grease is pushed back and forth through a metal plate with holes. The size of the holes determines the amount of shear stress on the sample, with smaller holes producing larger stresses. The plates in this method have smaller holes than the plates in ASTM D217, causing larger shear stresses, and creating more severe conditions to challenge the grease to maintain a proper consistency. The final penetration value is reported.

FTM 321 (FED-STD-791 Method 321.2) - Oil Separation, Wire Cone Method

 FTM-321Oil Separation from Lubricating Grease (Static Technique)

The bleeding of oil from grease under static conditions and elevated temperatures is measured.  Temperatures from 150°F to 450°F can be used.  30 hours is the usual test period but may be extended or shortened as necessary. 
The tendency of oil to separate either during storage or when idle in a hot bearing can be an important property.  This test can distinguish between greases that will either promote or prevent oil separation according to the demands of the application. 
API Bulletin 5A2 (A.3) substitutes a nickel cone with 1.0 mm holes for the wire screen used in ASTM D6184 and FTM-321. 
This technique may simulate oil losses expected through the grease seals typically used on machines and tools used in 'Lubricated for Life' bearings.

FTM-335 - Navy Gear Wear Test

FTM-350 - Evaporation Loss @ 22 hours - need temperature

FTM-350 - Evaporation Loss @ 6 1/2 hours - need temperature

FTM-352 - Wick Ignition - Efect of Evaporation on Flammability

FTM-352 (FED-STD-791 Method 352.1) Effect of Evaporation on Flammability

Spray lubricants, vanishing lubricants and solid film lubricants depend on solvent evaporation after application to function properly.  The flammability of these lubricants gives an indication of safe usage ranges.  This test may be used to (1) determine the flammability of a lubricant both before and after solvent evaporation or (2) as a screening/specification test for some military specifications, such as those used for hydraulic fluids.

To assess the flammability before solvent evaporation, pipe cleaners are soaked in the sample and then repeatedly drawn over a flame until a self-sustained burn appears.  The number of passes is reported.  To assess the flammability after solvent evaporation, the sample is placed in a petri dish in a drying oven for the time and temperature ( specified in the method, pipe cleaners are soaked in the remaining sample and then repeatedly drawn over a flame at regular intervals until a self-sustained burn appears.  The number of passes it takes for a self-sustained burn to appear is reported.

          

FTM-353 - Evaporation

FTM-595 - Appearance

FTM-3005 - Dirt Count of Greases

FTM 3005 (FED-STD-791 Method 3005) Dirt Count of Grease

In this method, “dirt” refers to particles that are unintentionally present in grease. Dirt may come from many sources including the environment, contamination in raw materials, debris from packaging, and products of degradation or dimerization resulting from aging or improper storage. This method determines the size and concentration of opaque, or dark body, particles in grease. (Translucent and other semi-opaque particles cannot be distinguished from the structure of the grease.)

A microscope slide coated with test grease at a specified uniform thickness is covered with a cover glass and examined under a microscope. Particles are measured and counted. Reported are the number of particles from 25 to 75 micrometers, 75 to 125 micrometers and greater than 125 micrometers per cubic centimeter of grease.

FTM-3007 - Water Displacement & Stability

FTM 3007 (FED-STD-791 Method 3007) Water Displacement and Water Stability

The ability of a lubricant to protect metals from rust is usually evaluated by coating dry panels with the test sample. But in many real world applications, there is moisture in the system prior to lubrication, such as when a system containing hard to reach crevices needs to be re-lubricated. This test is intended to measure rust inhibition properties in (1) systems where new oil is being applied to areas where moisture is already present (2) systems where the lubricant mixes with water prior to reaching the moist metal to be protected.

Steel panels are sand blasted and cleaned. They are then divided into two groups. The first group is dipped into water, then the test oil. The second group is dipped into water and then the test oil which has been emulsified with water. Both sets are put in a constant humidity chamber for one hour and then visually evaluated. The presence of rust or abnormal surface appearances are reported.

FTM-3009 - Particulate Contamination, Filtration Time

FTM-3010 - Gravimetric Contamination & Ash Residue by Filtration

FTM-3012 - Particulate Contamination by HIAC

FTM-3013 - Particulate Contamination: Gravimetric

FTM-3101 - Precipitation Number

FTM-3213 - Static Foam Test

FTM-3411 - Thermal Stability & Corrosivity. 96 hrs, @ 525°F - cost per test cell. Duplicate runs by quote

FTM-3432 - Elastomer Compatibility of FKM Elastomer (AMS 3217/4A)

FTM-3433 - Navy S Silicone Rubber, Swelling, Hardness & Tensile Strength

FTM-3456 - Channel Point of Lubricating Oils

FTM-3457 - Hydrolytic Stability

FTM-3458 - Stability, Low Temperature @ 72 hrs; visual turbidity

FTM-3459 - Stability, Low Temperature @ 72 hrs; Barium Turbidity Standard

FTM-3463 - Boiling Water Immersion of Greases

FTM-3463 (FED-STD-791 Method 3463.2) Stability of Grease in Hot Water Immersion

Greases in marine, automotive and industrial applications may be exposed to water sprays, wash cycles, and other wet environments. This may cause the grease to become emulsified, leach into the water, or separate from its placement on the machine.  These processes may be accelerated if the water or the grease are hot due to normal operating conditions or problems in the system.  This test determines if a grease will suffer unacceptable emulsification, separation or degradation due to exposure in boiling water.  

A quantity of grease is added to boiling water.  Any observed water cloudiness or grease emulsification, dissolution, or disintegration is reported.

           

FTM-3465 - Storage Stability @12 months

FTM-3467 - Storage Stability 6 months @ 40°C (ASTM D217 unworked and worked penetration)

FTM-3480 - Volatility 24 hrs.

FTM-3603 - Swelling of Rubber NBR-L (AMS3217/2C) @ 168 hours

FTM-3604 - Swelling of Rubber NBR-H (AMS3217/1B) @ 168 hours

FTM-3604 - Swelling of Rubber NBR-H (AMS3217/1B) or FKM (AMS3217/4A) @ 72 hours

FTM-3710 - Molybdenum Disulfide Purity - Powders

FTM 3710 (FED-STD-791 Method 3710) Molybdenum Disulfide Purity

Molybdenum disulfide is a mined product used as a dry lubricant and as a solid additive to grease and lubricating oils.  The purity of MoS2 partially determines its effectiveness.  This method determines the purity of MoS2 powder.

The sample molybdenum disulfide powder is put through a series of reactions and extractions.  The percent MoS2 in the sample is reported.

         

FTM-3720 - Molybdenum Disulfide Content - Soap Greases

FTM 3720 (FED-STD-791 Method 3720) Molybdenum Disulfide Content of Lubricating Grease

Molybdenum disulfide is a dark grey solid with excellent lubricity properties used as a solid lubricant or as a grease additive.  This method determines the percent of molybdenum disulfide in soap-thickened greases which do not contain other solid additives.  In such cases, analysis by ICP (ASM D7303) may be preferable.  For non-soap thickened greases see FTM 3722.  For MoS2 powder purity of see FTM 3710.

The sample is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask, hexane-oleic acid solvent is added and the flask is heated and stirred to achieve a smooth mixture.  The mixture is filtered, the solids are dried and weighed.  The percent MoS2 is reported. 

          

 

        

 

FTM-3722 - Molybdenum Disulfide Content - Non-soap Greases

FTM 3722 (FED-STD-791 Method 3722) Molybdenum Disulfide Content of Non-Soap Thickened Lubricating Greases

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a silvery, black solid with high temperature stability. It has excellent lubricity properties, and may be used as a solid lubricant or as a thickener in grease lubricants. "Moly" finds applications in aerospace, motor vehicles and many other areas. This test determines the amount of MoS2 in grease. It is intended for greases that are not thickened by soap - for soap-thickened greases, please see FTM-3720.

Through a series of reactions and extractions, the solids in the grease are isolated and the molybdenum disulfide content is determined. Reported are the percent solids in the original grease, the percent molybdenum disulfide in the grease solids, and the percent molybdenum disulfide in the original grease.

FTM-3816 - Film Appearance & Thickness

FTM-4001.2 - Salt Spray Corrosion @ 48 hours (also see ASTM B117)

FTM-4001.2 - Salt Spray Corrosion @ 100 hours

FTM-4001.2 - Salt Spray Corrosion @ 300 hours

FTM-4001.2 - Salt Spray Corrosion @ 500 hours

FTM-4001.2 - Salt Spray Corrosion @ 1000 hours

FTM-4371 - Refractive Index @ 20°C or 25°C - choose temp

FTM-5304 - Copper Corrosion of grease

FTM-5305 - Silver and Bronze Corrosion of oil

FTM-5306 - Corrosiveness of Cutting Fluids

FTM-5307 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 72 hours

FTM-5307 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This method uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass spacers.

Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications. Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling.

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge. Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

FTM-5307 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 168 hours

FTM-5307 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This method uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass spacers.

Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications. Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling.

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge. Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

FTM-5307 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability. Cost per Sampling Interval

FTM-5307 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This method uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass spacers.

Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications. Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling.

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge. Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

FTM-5308 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 72 hrs

FTM-5308 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This ASTM Method describes Federal Test Methods 5307 and 5308.  The configuration of the test cell, metal specimens, and arrangement is different for each method.

FTM-5308 uses 1x1 square metal specimens tied together in a specific arrangement placed in the bottom of the glass test cell or tube. Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications. Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling.

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge.  Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

FTM-5308 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 168 hrs

ASTM D4636, FTM-5307, FTM-5308 Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils

This ASTM Method describes Federal Test Methods 5307 and 5308.  The configuration of the test cell, metal specimens, and arrangement is different for each method.

FTM-5307 uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass pacers. 

FTM-5308 uses 1x1 square metal specimens tied together in a specific arrangement placed in the bottom of the glass test cell or tube. Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications.  Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate.  Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling. 

Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge.  Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.

FTM-5309 - Copper Corrosion of Grease

FTM-5321 - Lead Corrosion, SOD Method

FTM-5322 - Galvanic Corrosion, Clip Test/Salt Spray, 48 hrs - Grease

FTM-5322 - Corrosiveness of Oil on a Bimetallic Couple

FTM-5329 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 100 hours

FTM 5329 (FED-STD-791 Method 5329) Corrosion Protection (Humidity Cabinet)

Metals may be weakened or destroyed when they react with atmospheric oxygen to produce rust. The reaction rate is increased by the presence of liquid or atmospheric water. This test measures the ability of oils containing metal preservatives to inhibit rust formation in high humidity atmospheres.

Steel panels are sand blasted, cleaned and dipped in the sample oil. They are then hung in a controlled-temperature, controlled-humidity chamber for the specified test time. Panels are removed and rust formation is evaluated. The report lists the number of rust spots less than 0.1 cm, 0.1cm to 0.2cm and greater than 0.2cm. This test can be run for a specified period of time or until failure (until rust forms).

 

FTM-5329 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 400 hours

FTM-5329 Rust Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet

This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity.  Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels.  After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time. A pass is reported if the test surface contains no more than three dots of rust, none of wihch is larger than 1 mm in diameter.  A fail is reported if the test surface contains one or more dots of rust larger than 1mm in diameter or if it contains four or more dots of any size.

A written description of the relative degree of rusting at various exposure times can be provided.  Digital color photos can also be provided (e-mail or snail mail) at additional cost
 

FTM-5329 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 900 hours

FTM 5329 (FED-STD-791 Method 5329) Corrosion Protection (Humidity Cabinet)

Metals may be weakened or destroyed when they react with atmospheric oxygen to produce rust. The reaction rate is increased by the presence of liquid or atmospheric water. This test measures the ability of oils containing metal preservatives to inhibit rust formation in high humidity atmospheres.

Steel panels are sand blasted, cleaned and dipped in the sample oil. They are then hung in a controlled-temperature, controlled-humidity chamber for the specified test time. Panels are removed and rust formation is evaluated. The report lists the number of rust spots less than 0.1 cm, 0.1cm to 0.2cm and greater than 0.2cm. This test can be run for a specified period of time or ""until failure” – until rust forms.

FTM-5329 - Humidity Cabinet Test @ 1000 hours

FTM 5329 (FED-STD-791 Method 5329) Corrosion Protection (Humidity Cabinet)

Metals may be weakened or destroyed when they react with atmospheric oxygen to produce rust. The reaction rate is increased by the presence of liquid or atmospheric water. This test measures the ability of oils containing metal preservatives to inhibit rust formation in high humidity atmospheres.

Steel panels are sand blasted, cleaned and dipped in the sample oil. They are then hung in a controlled-temperature, controlled-humidity chamber for the specified test time. Panels are removed and rust formation is evaluated. The report lists the number of rust spots less than 0.1 cm, 0.1cm to 0.2cm and greater than 0.2cm. This test can be run for a specified period of time or ""until failure” – until rust forms.

 

FTM-5331 - Sulfurous Acid - Salt Spray

FTM-5414 - Resistance of Grease to Fuel

FTM 5414 (FED-STD-791 Method 5414) Resistance of Grease to Fuel

Grease used in carburetor controls, valve stem seals and other aircraft and automobile applications may come in contact with hydrocarbon fuels. If the fuel dissolves or deteriorates the grease, the system may no longer be properly lubricated. This test first determines the amount of grease that dissolves in a given amount of solvent and then visually determines changes in the grease in the presence of solvent.

To determine the amount of grease that dissolves in the test fluid: A known quantity of test grease is placed in a centrifuge tube, solvent is added and the tube is shaken until the grease is evenly dispersed in the solvent. The mixture is centrifuged until two layers are completely separated and the upper layer is clear. An aliquot of the clear fluid is removed, the fluid is evaporated, the residue weight is determined. The percent of the sample dissolved in the solvent is reported.

To visually determine deterioration of grease in solvent: a strip of aluminum is coated with the test grease, and half immersed in the solvent for several hours. The strip is removed, dipped in fresh solvent and examined for defects including blistering, cracking and loss of adhesion. It is then dried for 24 hours and re-examined for defects. The results of both visual observations (before and after drying) are reported.

FTM-5415 - Resistance of Grease to Aqueous Solutions

FTM-5421 - Ash Content

FTM 5421 (FED-STD-791 Method 5421) Ash Content

This method determines the amount of ash-containing substances in petroleum products.  It is considered obsolete and has been replaced by ASTM D482.

NOTE:  Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories still offers this test as a service to our clients.

FTM-6052 - High Temp. High Pressure Spray Ignition

FTM-6053 - Manifold Ignition @ 1,300°F

FTM-6503 - Mean Hertz Load by Shell 4-Ball (Extreme Pressure)

FTM-7501 - Low Temperature Torque @ -54°C., 2 spindles only

GM 4298-P - Neutral Salt Spray, General Motors Specification

GM 9030-P - Oil Separation, General Motors Specification

HL-1151* - Total Halogens by Ion Chromatography

IEC 811-5-1 - Oil Separation

IP 112 - Anti-Corrosive Properties

IP 121 - Oil Separation, Wire Mesh Cone Static Method @ 42 hrs.

IP-121 Oil Separation from Lubricating Grease

The bleeding of oil from grease under static conditions and elevated temperatures is measured.  Temperatures from 150°F to 450°F can be used. 30 hours is the usual test period but may be extended or shortened as necessary. The tendency of oil to separate either during storage or when idle in a hot bearing can be an important property. This test can distinguish between greases that will either promote or prevent oil separation according to the demands of the application.

API Bulletin 5A2 (A.3) substitutes a nickel cone with 1.0 mm holes for the wire screen used in ASTM D6184 and FTM-321. This technique may simulate oil losses expected through the grease seals typically used on machines and tools used in 'Lubricated for Life' bearings.

IP 121 - Oil Separation, Wire Mesh Cone Static Method @ 168 hrs.

IP-121 Oil Separation from Lubricating Grease

The bleeding of oil from grease under static conditions and elevated temperatures is measured.  Temperatures from 150°F to 450°F can be used. 30 hours is the usual test period but may be extended or shortened as necessary. The tendency of oil to separate either during storage or when idle in a hot bearing can be an important property. This test can distinguish between greases that will either promote or prevent oil separation according to the demands of the application.

API Bulletin 5A2 (A.3) substitutes a nickel cone with 1.0 mm holes for the wire screen used in ASTM D6184 and FTM-321. This technique may simulate oil losses expected through the grease seals typically used on machines and tools used in 'Lubricated for Life' bearings.

IP 142 - Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test @ 100 hrs.

IP 220 - EMCOR Bearing Test (per bearing) (also see D6138 or DIN 51802)

IP 220 Determination of Corrosion Prevention Properties of Lubricating Greases Under Dynamic Wet Conditions - EMCOR Test

This is a dynamic resistance test for grease using a double row self-aligning ball bearings. Distilled water, or any concentration of salt water may be used. The test is a more severe bearing test than than ASTM D1743.

ISO 760 - Moisture by Weight

ISO 1817 - Swelling of Rubber 168 hrs. @ 100°C

ISO 2160 - Copper Corrosiveness - needs time & temperature

ISO 2176 - Dropping Point

ISO 2211 - Color of Clear Liquids

ISO 2211 method 1973 – Liquid Chemical Products – Measurement of Colour in Hazen Units (Platinum Cobalt Scale)

The color of liquids may be an indication of their identity, purity or degree of refinement.    This method determines the color of clear liquids using the APHA Color scale (Platinum/Cobalt Color Scale or the Hazen Color Scale) which measures the color of transparent liquids, differentiating between shades of pale yellow in nearly colorless samples.  The scale runs from 0 to 500 hundred with 0 being distilled water. 

Colored standard solutions are prepared.  The sample color is compared to the standard solutions and the color that most closely matches the sample is reported.

 

 

 

 

ISO 2811 - Density-Grease Pycnometer - need temperature

SO 2811 - Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pycnometer Method

This test determines the density of a grease, paste or emulsion using a special metal pycnometer. One example of the test's usefulness is in determining the density of lubricant emulsions including those used in metal working, fabric processing and as mold release agents. The density of these emulsions may give an indication of their compositions and verify that they are the density required for the processing equipment on which they will be used.

A calibrated metal pycnometer is weighed, filled with sample and equilibrated at the test temperature. The cap is firmly pushed into place allowing any accumulated air bubbles and excessive sample to come through a hole in the lid. The pycnometer containing the sample is weighed and the sample density is reported in grams per cubic centimeter.

ISO 3838 - Density @ 25°C

ISO 4406 - Particulate Contamination, by HIAC Particle Counter

ISO 6072 - Elastomer Compatibility @ 168 hrs. (FKM: AMS-3217/4A)

ISO 6072 - Elastomer Compatibility @ 1000 hrs. (FKM: AMS-3217/4A)

ISO 6618 - Acid Number

ISO 7120 - Rust Prevention

ISO 8573 - Infrared Spectrograph - FTIR

ISO 11007 - EMCOR Bearing Test (per bearing)

ISO 15029 - Spray Ignition Characteristics

JDQ 36B - Roll Stability, John Deere Method

JDQ 47A - Roll Stability, John Deere Method, Procedure A

JIS K 2220 - Deleterious Particles, Japanese Industrial Standard

JIS K 2220 - Low Temperature Torque, Japanese Industrial Standard

K95400 - Lincoln Ventmeter, Room Temp to 0°C

K95400 Lincoln Ventmeter

Centralized automatic lubricating systems are designed to deliver the right amount of grease at the right time to prevent too much or too little lubrication. These systems pressurize grease, deliver it to the needed sites and then vent the system to relieve pressure. The proper grease is essential for the system to function correctly. The grease needs to flow under the applied pressure at the temperature of the system and recover with venting so that it can be pressurized again. This test uses a Lincoln Ventmeter to measure ventability of grease under conditions similar to those used in industrial systems

The Lincoln Ventmeter is a 20-foot long pipe with an internal diameter of 0.187 inches with a pump to pressurize the grease and a valve to vent the grease. The apparatus is filled with grease and brought to the required test temperature. The system is stabilized at 1800 psi and then vented. After 30 seconds the residual pressure is read and reported. In general, greases with readings of less than 400psi vent pressures are typically acceptable for use in automatic lubrication systems.

K95400 - Lincoln Ventmeter, Below 0°C

K95400 Lincoln Ventmeter

Centralized automatic lubricating systems are designed to deliver the right amount of grease at the right time to prevent too much or too little lubrication. These systems pressurize grease, deliver it to the needed sites and then vent the system to relieve pressure. The proper grease is essential for the system to function correctly. The grease needs to flow under the applied pressure at the temperature of the system and recover with venting so that it can be pressurized again. This test uses a Lincoln Ventmeter to measure ventability of grease under conditions similar to those used in industrial systems

The Lincoln Ventmeter is a 20-foot long pipe with an internal diameter of 0.187 inches with a pump to pressurize the grease and a valve to vent the grease. The apparatus is filled with grease and brought to the required test temperature. The system is stabilized at 1800 psi and then vented. After 30 seconds the residual pressure is read and reported. In general, greases with readings of less than 400psi vent pressures are typically acceptable for use in automatic lubrication systems.

LFW-1 - Oscillating Friction & Wear DOD-G-24508A

LT-37 - Mobility of Greases U.S. Steel Method @ 77°F

LT-37 - Mobility of Greases U.S. Steel Method 0 to 60°F

LT-37 - Mobility of Greases U.S. Steel Method Below 0°F

LT-46 - Bethlehem Steel Combo Test Part A and Part B combined

LUX 5.3.1 - Aging Properties

LUX 5.9 - Corrosion Inhibition

LUX 7.10 - Evaporation for HFC Fluids @ 168 hrs.

LUX 7.14.1 - Rolling Fatigue Resistance

LUX 7.6 - Rust Prevention Procedure

NAS1638 - Particulate Contamination by HIAC

NLGI GA Series - ASTM NLGI GA Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive wheel bearings for non-extreme temperatures. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI GA Series - ASTM NLGI GA Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive wheel bearings for non-extreme temperatures. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI GB Series - ASTM NLGI GB Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Baring Grease

Grease for automotive wheel bearings for temperatures between -40C and 120C with occasional excursions to 160C. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI GB Series - ASTM NLGI GB Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive wheel bearings for temperatures between -40C and 120C with occasional excursions to 160C. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI GC Series - ASTM NLGI GC Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive wheel bearings for temperatures between -40C and 160C with occasional excursions to 200C. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI GC Series - ASTM NLGI GC Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive wheel bearings for temperatures between -40C and 160C with occasional excursions to 200C. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI LA/GA Series - ASTM NLGI LA/GA Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LA Series and GA Series

NLGI LA/GA Series - ASTM NLGI LA/GA Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LA Series and GA Series

NLGI LA/GB Series - ASTM NLGI LA/GB Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LA Series and GB Series

NLGI LA/GB Series - ASTM NLGI LA/GB Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LA Series and GB Series

NLGI LA/GC Series - ASTM NLGI LA/GC Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LA Series and GC Series

NLGI LA/GC Series - ASTM NLGI LA/GC Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LA Series and GC Series

NLGI LA Series - ASTM NLGI LA Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive chassis components and universal joints for non-extreme temperatures and frequent relubrication intervals. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI LA Series - ASTM NLGI LA Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive chassis components and universal joints for non-extreme temperatures and frequent relubrication intervals. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI LB/GA Series - ASTM NLGI LB/GA Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LB Series and GA Series

NLGI LB/GA Series - ASTM NLGI LB/GA Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LB Series and GA Series

NLGI LB/GB Series - ASTM NLGI LB/GB Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LB Series and GB Series

NLGI LB/GB Series - ASTM NLGI LB/GB Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LB Series and GB Series

NLGI LB/GC Series - ASTM NLGI LB/GC Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LB Series and GC Series

NLGI LB/GC Series - ASTM NLGI LB/GC Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Group of tests that meet tne requirements of both LB Series and GC Series

NLGI LB Series - ASTM NLGI LB Series using ASTM D2265 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive chassis components and universal joints for temperatures between -40C 120C and prolonged relubrication intervals. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

NLGI LB Series - ASTM NLGI LB Series using ASTM D566 Option - Wheel Bearing Grease

Grease for automotive chassis components and universal joints for temperatures between -40C 120C and prolonged relubrication intervals. Please refer to ASTM D4950 for a full specification.

Photos - Photos (each)

PLTL-03 - Film Characteristics per MIL-PRF-32033/27617

PLTL-04 - Workmanship & Texture

PLTL-05 - Flow Point Test MIL-C-21567

PLTL-06 - Adhesiveness MIL-PRF-18458

PLTL-07 - Low Temp Flexibility MIL-PRF-18458

PLTL-08 - Crackle Test

PLTL-12 - Coefficient of Linear Expansion

PLTL-13 - Low Temperature Turbidity MIL-DTL-17111

PLTL-15 - Water Sludging MIL-DTL-17111

PLTL-18 - Moisture by Weight SAE AMS-M-7866

PLTL-19 - Water Solubles SAE AMS-M-7866

PLTL-20 - Oil Content by Acetone Extraction SAE AMS-M-7866

PLTL-21 - Total Insolubles SAE AMS-M-7866

PLTL-23 - Steel & Copper Corrosion SAE AMS-M-7866

PLTL-24 - Fineness by Fischer Sub-sieve Sizer SAE AMS-M-7866

PLTL-30 - High Temp. Stability per MIL-PRF-83282, MIL-PRF-87252, MIL-PRF-87257 - specify temperature.

PLTL-31 - Total Solids Type I MIL-L-23398

PLTL-36 - Insolubility SAE-AMS-8660 (MIL-S-8660)

PLTL-37 - Film Stability & Corrosion on Steel MIL-G-6032 SAE AMS-G-6032

PLTL-39 - Flammability, Dow Corning #4 Compound SAE-AS 8660 ¶ 4.6.4

PLTL-40 - Low Temperature Torque @ -65°F Dow Corning #4 Compound SAE-AS 8660 ASTM D1478

PLTL-41 - Corrosive Effects-Metals, Dow Corning #4 Compound SAE-AS 8660 ¶ 4.6.5.1.1

PLTL-42 - Corrosive Effects-Non-Metals Dow Corning #4 Compound SAE-AS 8660 ¶ 4.6.5.1.2

PLTL-44 - Evaporation Bleed MIL-S-8660 SAE-AS 8660 FTM 321

PLTL-45 - Total Solids Type II MIL-L-23398

PLTL-46 - Waterproof Sealing MIL-S-8660 SAE-AS 8660 ¶ 4.6.9

PLTL-48 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 72 hrs. MIL-DTL-17111

PLTL-48 - Oxidation & Corrosion Stability @ 336 hrs. MIL-DTL-17111

PLTL-49 - Storage Stability @ 6 months

PLTL-50 - Corrosion, Steel 24 hrs @ 650°F

PLTL-54 - Salt Fog Exposure MIL-C-23411

PLTL-56 - Removability MIL-C-23411

PLTL-57 - Swelling of Rubber MIL-L-19701

PLTL-58 - Microscopic Examination

PLTL-59 - Humidity Cabinet @ 20 hrs., Hughes Aircraft Co. Specification

PLTL-60 - High/Low Temperature Stability MIL-C-6529

PLTL-61 - GC Analysis

PLTL-64 - Film Thickness per MIL-C-23411

PLTL-66 - Effect on Paint MIL-C-23411

PLTL-67 - Drying of Solid Film Lubricants MIL-C-23411

PLTL-70 - Corrosion MIL-C-23411

PLTL-72 - Aniline Point MIL-DTL-17111

PLTL-73 - Thermal Conductivity by DSC- (charge per temp) specify temperature. 38°C to 100°C typical is

PLTL-73 Thermal Conductivity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Thermal conductivity describes the ability of a substance to dissipate heat. In general, substances with high thermal conductivities dissipate heat more rapidly than substances with low ones. Greases and oils with high thermal conductivities are used to coat heat-generating elements of electrical and mechanical systems to protect other system components from thermal damage. Greases and oils with low thermal conductivities may jacket systems to limit temperature fluctuations from external sources. This test determines the thermal conductivity of grease or oil. Petro-Lubricant Testing Labs can test temperatures from 38oC to 100oC. Other temperatures may be determined by extrapolation.

Using a differential scanning calorimeter and a specially designed, proprietary test cell, the sample is brought to the test temperature. The heat flow is followed and compared to a standard of known thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity is reported in watts m -1 K -1. Please specify the temperatures of interest.

PLTL-75 - Water Sensitivity MIL-PRF-46170

PLTL-76 - Compatibility of Oils @ High & Low Temps - per client supplied Reference Oil

PLTL-78 - Infrared Spectrograph - FTIR

PLTL-78 FTIR Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrograph

This is an absorbance or transmittance spectrum based on wave length in the infrared region of light from about 2.5 to 17 microns or frequency in the range from about 4000cm-1 to 450cm-1. It is a very often used as a 'fingerprint' for identification and QC purposes and can be also used to identify the presence and relative concentration of molecules containing specific functional groups.

Software packages have been developed which allow the determination of used oil parameters (ie; soot, fuel dilution, oxidative product buildup etc.). In all cases where possible it is best to establish a baseline with known or unused material.

PLTL-80 - Biological Activity

PLTL-81 - Oil Separation, Nickel Cone

PLTL-82 - Soxhlet Extraction of Oil from Grease

PLTL-83 - Suppression MIL-C-15074

PLTL-84 - Oil Separation, Pressure Cylinder US Steel Method

PLTL-85 - Molecular Weight, Boiling Point ElevationTechnique

PLTL-86 - Cincinnati Milacron Thermal Stability Procedure A or Procedure B

PLTL-87 - Iron Contamination by Magnetic Extraction

PLTL-88* - Chlorine by Microcoulometry

PLTL-89 - Bulk Modulus per MIL-PRF-83282

PLTL-90 - Density-Grease Pycnometer- specify temperature

PLTL-90 Density of Greases and Highly Viscous Liquids by Pycnometer

Equipment manufacturers often specify lubricant requirements by volume. When using grease or viscous lubricating oils, measuring volumes may be messy and difficult. This test determines density, which allows operators to make simple mass/volume conversions.

The sample is placed in a specially designed aluminum pycnometer, and brought to the test temperature. The sample mass and volume are accurately determined and results are reported in grams per cubic centimeter.

Related pycnometer tests offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories:

For viscous oils:

 ASTM D1481 Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

 ISO 2811 Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method

For greases:

ISO-2811 Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method

For bituminous materials:

ASTM D70 Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method)

For medium and low viscosity liquids:

ASTM D891 Specific Gravity Apparent, of Liquid Industrial Chemicals

 For emulsions and pastes:

 ISO 2811 Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Density - Part 1 - Pyknometer Method

PLTL-91 - Water Displacement MIL-C-23411

PLTL-92 - Coefficient of Expansion by Pycnometer - specify temperature

PLTL-95 - Friction Analysis, Rolling Contact

PLTL-95 Friction Analysis by Tapered Roller Bearing

This is a proprietary method developed by Petro-Lubricant Test Labs. This test uses a tapered roller bearing, Timken #LM-11949/11910, with the loading and measuring systems of the ASTM D2266 Four Ball Wear tester. The lubricated bearing is run under prescribed load, speed, and temperature conditions. The resulting torque against the bearing is related to the drag of the lubricant on the rolling elements. This friction 'coefficient' is a relative measure of the smoothness to be expected between different lubricants running under the same conditions. Contact us directly for more information.

PLTL-97 - Brookfield Viscosity - specify temperature (Refer to Manual # M/92-161-G894

PLTL-99 - Allowable Weight Change per MIL-PRF-372

PLTL-100 - Hydrobromic Acid Neutralization MIL-C-6529

PLTL-101 - Cobalt Chloride Test MIL-C-6529

PLTL-102 - Falex Pin & V Block Load Carrying Capacity per MIL-PRF-63460

PLTL-102 - Falex Pin and Vee Block per MIL-PRF-63460This method is a modified form of ASTM D5620 Procedure B with adaptations made to meet the requirements of Mil-Prf-63460D. This military specification has been updated.

ASTM D5620 is considered obsolete by ASTM.

Note: This test is still offered by Petro-Lubricant Testing Laboratories as a service to a customers who request it.

PLTL-104 - Corrosion 7 days @ 54°C MIL-PRF-63460

ASTM E1269 Specific Heat by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Heat build-up in mechanical and electrical equipment may damage expensive components, potentially causing system failure and expensive repairs. Heat transfer fluids are designed to absorb and dissipate heat before it causes problems. The amount of thermal energy that an oil can absorb is its specific heat capacity. An oil with a low specific heat capacity will heat up very quickly and absorb little thermal energy. A fluid with a high specific heat capacity will absorb a large quantity of thermal energy. Normally fluids with high specific heat capacities are best for heat transfer applications. This test determines specific heat capacities.

The sample is accurately weighed in the test pan and heated at a controlled rate using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The heat flow is followed, and compared to the heat flow of a standard sapphire crystal heated at the same controlled rate. The specific heat capacity is reported in both Joules gram-1 K-1 and calories gram-1 ºC-1. Please specify the temperatures of interest when requesting this test.

 

PLTL-105 - M8 & M9 Chemical Indicator Test Paper MIL-PRF-63460

PLTL-107 - Firing Residue Removal MIL-PRF-63460 (price includes 3 runs)

PLTL-108 - DSC Thermogram

PLTL-108 DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) Thermogram

When a substance melts, freezes or undergoes a glass transition, thermal properties such as heat of expansion, specific heat and thermal conductivity change.  A DSC thermogram scans the heat flow in a substance as the temperature is increased.  It may help identify melting and glass transition temperatures. 

The sample is placed in a DSC, and the temperature is slowly increased until the range of interest is covered.  A copy of the scan is provided along with the temperature at which transitions are observed.  Please specify the temperature range of interest.

         

PLTL-109 - High and Low Temperature Accelerated Stability per MIL-PRF-5606 and MIL-PRF-87257

PLTL-110 - Vacuum Extraction of Oil from Greases

PLTL-111 - Low Temperature Stability per MIL-C-3150

PLTL-112 - Worked Stability per MIL-L-19701

PLTL-113 - Oxidation Stability MIL-PRF-14107

PLTL-114 - Low Temperature Stability MIL-14107/6085/7870/6083

PLTL-115 - Stain: Original Oil Accelerated MIL-C-22235

PLTL-116 - Stain: 5% Water Emulsion, Accelerated MIL-C-22235

PLTL-118 - Corrosion MIL-C-15074

PLTL-119 - Corrosivity per MIL-PRF-81309

PLTL-120 - Stability per MIL-C-15074

PLTL-122 - Emulsification Resistance MIL-PRF-85336

PLTL-123 - Blue Soap Test

PLTL-123 Blue Soap Test

In the manufacturing of some ester types, there may be some of the acid precursors remaining in the product. These acid residues are typically neutralized and washed out of the product. To test if they are adequately removed, a 40 gram sample of ester is dissolved in acetone and Bromo-P-Blue indicator. If yellow, the ester is residue free. If blue, the ester contains the 'soap' of the acid precursor. Titration with HCl will give the weight percent (as NaOH) of soap in the product.

PLTL-124 - Low Temp Torque, Ministry of DefenseDEF STAN 05-50 Part 62

PLTL-126 - Apparent Viscosity per MIL-PRF-85336

PLTL-127 - Rust Prevention per MIL-PRF-85336

PLTL-128 - Rust Inhibition per MIL-L-46000

PLTL-129 - Stability per MIL-PRF-3150

PLTL-130 - Humidity Cabinet @ 14 days per MIL-C-6529

PLTL-131 - Sonic Shear Stability MIL-PRF-5606 & 6083

PLTL-131 Sonic Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Oils as per MIL-PRF-6083 and MIL-PRF-5606

This test is a modified form of ASTM D5621 "Sonic Shear Stability of Hydraulic Fluids" with conditions set to qualify oils MIL-PRF-6083 or MIL-PRF-5606.

PLTL-132 - Glass Fiber Content by Pyrolysis

PLTL-133 - Worked Oil Bleed by Meritor Method

PLTL-134 - pH, Oil Concentration, Chlorides, Type of Emulsion

PLTL-134 pH by Universal Electrode pH Meter

The pH of aqueous oil solutions is used in numerous industrial and laboratory processes, such as milling, machining, cutting, forming, refining and waste treatment, to determine additional processing steps. This test determines the pH of aqueous oil solutions using a glass electrode.

The pH meter is calibrated, the electrode is immersed in sample aqueous solution and the pH is reported to 0.01 pH unit.

PLTL-135 - Storage Stability per MIL-PRF-85336

PLTL-136 - U.S. Steel Method, Static Heat Test

PLTL-137 - Tackiness Cup & Bearing TSK2509G-22 - Toyota Specification

PLTL-138 - Flow Out @ High Pressure TSK2509G-22 - Toyota Specification

PLTL-139* - Hiding Power MIL-PRF-3572

PLTL-140 - Vapor Density

PLTL-142 - Salt Water Emersion @ 20 hrs. MIL-PRF-21260

PLTL-143 - Residue & Fluidity

PLTL-144 - Insolubility MIL-C-21567

PLTL-145 - Water Solubility

PLTL-147 - Evaporation Loss, DaimlerChrysler Spec. MS 272

PLTL-148 - Centrifugal Bleed, ExxonMobil Method

PLTL-149 - Oxidation Onset Temperature

PLTL-150 - Heating per MIL-PRF-372

PLTL-151 - Odor per MIL-PRF-372

PLTL-152 - Container Corrosion per MIL-PRF-372

PLTL-154 - Melting Point

PLTL-155 - Compatibility per MIL-PRF-81322

PLTL-156 - Reichert Test

PLTL-157 - Sulfurous Acid Salt Spray MIL-C-81309

PLTL-158 - Water Displacement MIL-C-81309

PLTL-159 - Gas Generation, Cylinder Ring on Block API 5A2/5A3/ISO13768

PLTL-160 - Salt Water Emersion, Lockheed Martin Spec. WS6788C

PLTL-161 - Copper Strip, Lockheed Martin Spec WS6788C

PLTL-162 - Penetration Test for WD-40

PLTL-163 - Storage Stability, 168 hrs. @ 50°C per MIL-L-19701

PLTL-164 - Storage Stability, 6 weeks @ -18°C per MIL-PRF-23699

PLTL-165 - Pumpability Test @ -25°C

PLTL-166 - Falex Test per MIL-L-46000

PLTL-167 - Solubility Stability

PLTL-168 - Solvent Extraction of Base Oil

PLTL-169 - Water Washing MIL-PRF-17672/17331 D665B

PLTL-170 - Thermal Stability by DSC

PLTL-171 - Microworker for Lubricating Grease

PLTL-173 - Corrosion Protection (Vapor Phase) MIL-PRF-46002

PLTL-174 - Compatibility Test, Caterpillar Specification 1E2359

PLTL-175 - High Temperature Evaporation Test

PLTL-176 - Assay of Metal Hydroxides

PLTL-177 - Phosphite Content MIL-TT-T-656C

PLTL-178 - Shear Stability MIL-PRF-23699

PLTL-178 Sonic Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Oils as per MIL-PRF-23699 and DOD-PRF-85734

This test is a modified form of ASTM D2603 "Sonic Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Oils" with the conditions set to qualify oils for either MIL-PRF-23699 or MIL-PRF-85734.

PLTL-179 - Corrosive Action, Girling International Specification

PLTL-180 - Atomic Absorption, Aqueous, Analysis of Copper & Iron

PLTL-180M - Metals by Atomic Absorption (AA)

PLTL-181 - Dynamic Base Oil Solubility in Fluids by Agitated Vial Test

PLTL-182 - Oil Separation of Bulk Greases, 12 day test - per temp.

PLTL-183 - Full Scale Pumpability

PLTL-184 - Acid Neutralization per MIL-PRF-21208 ¶ 4.3.3.9.3

PLTL-185 - Static Corrosion MIL-H-22072

PLTL-186 - Stirring Corrosion MIL-H-22072

PLTL-187 - Static Sheen 40 CFR 435 Appendix 1 Sub Part A

PLTL-192 - Oil Homogeneity per MIL-DTL-XX509

PLTL-193 - Freezing per MIL-PRF-372

PLTL-194 - Evaporation, 4 hrs. @ 70°C per MIL-H-22072

PLTL-196 - GOST Oxidation

PLTL-197 - Effect on Poly Amide Insulate Wire

PLTL-198 - Nail Climb Test

PLTL-199 - Abrasive Cleaning per MIL-PRF-372D

PTI-Table 1 #8 - Compatibility with Sheathing Tensile Strength (polypropylene or polyethylene)

SAE 749 - Particulate Contiamination

SAE ARP 5088A - Total Acid Number

SAE ARP 598B - Particle Count

SAE J1165 - ISO Cleanliness Code

TM-52-1 - Caustic Cleaning Test, Fisher Body Spec.

TM-52-6 - Bleeding Test, Fisher Body Spec. (Per temperature)

TS2-30-02 - High Temperature Stability, Girling International Specification

UN III Sect.31 - Enclosed Space Ignition Test

USP 23 - USP Specific Gravity of Petrolatum

USP Visc. - USP Brookfield Viscosity of Petrolatum

USS-1RT - US Steel Retention Test (per run)

WQTM-611 - Particle Count, BASF Method

WS6788C - Copper Strip, Short Term High Temp, Lockheed Martin Spec.


Lubricant Product Types

Air tool oil

Antifreeze fluid

Anti-seize compound

Aqueous lubricants

Bar chain oil

Bicycle chain oil

Bio-lubricants

Break-in oil

CLP lubricant

Compressor oil

Corrosion inhibitors

Crankcase oils

Cutting fluids

Cutting oils

Deicing fluid

Dielectric grease

Dielectric oil

Die lubricant

Diesel engine oils

Dry film lubricant

Extreme pressure additives

Food grade grease

Food grade lubricant

Food grade oil

Friction modifiers

Gas turbine oils

Gasoline engine oils

Gear oil

General purpose oil

Graphite

Heat transfer oil

Hydraulic fluid

Insulating oil

Jet turbine oils

Mineral oils

Mold release lubricant

Molybdenum disulfide

Open gear lubricant

Penetrating oils

Piston engine oils

Preservative coatings

Preservative oil

Quenching oils

R&O oil

Refrigerant oil

Silicone oil

Silicone grease

Solid lubricants

Spindle oil

Spray grease

Spray lubricant

Steam turbine oils

Synthetic oils

Tapping lubricant

Teflon

Transformer oil

Transmission fluid

Transmission oil

Turbine oils

Two cycle oils

Vacuum grease

Vacuum pump oil

Way oil

Wire Rope lubricant